GRADE 8 RESOURCES

The Intentional & Direct Teaching of Essential Citizenship Competencies

CITIZENSHIP RESOURCES GRADE 8: ENGAGED CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

Engaged Citizens question, critically examine, advocate, and defend rights and responsibilities of a democracy on a local, national, and global level.  They are beginning to understand the role that history played in the world they experience today. They are making sense of the different types of governance at local and national levels and the areas of responsibility connected to those governing bodies.  Students work to understand issues and actions connected with diversity, rights and responsibilities, levels of governance and think about how rules and social customs can have different impacts on people.

Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Grade eight students explore the concept of democracy as demonstrated in Canada. Throughout the study of democracy, students reflect on alternative decision making processes such as consensus and majority rule.   Students trace the evolution of legislation from an idea to implementation.  They learn how the democratic process is strengthened by citizen participation.

While analyzing the concepts and processes of a democratic government, students consider the impact of Canada’s relationship to the land and their treaty responsibilities and contemplate the implications of the changing cultural demographics in Canada.  Students examine Canada’s history and longtime relationship with First Nations people to understand the events that have shaped Canadian identity.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Democracy requires actively engaged citizens that defend their rights and responsibilities. The democratic process requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find the best solution for the greatest common good.

Students will use information to understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.
  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas’ in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will be able to:

  • Understand the various roles that support the democratic process
  • Demonstrate their roles, rights and responsibilities in a democratic process.
  • Investigate the historical events that have impacted Canada’s democracy.

Essential Questions

Questions:

  • What makes democracy work? How could democracy be improved?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
  • How do my actions influence others?  How do the actions of others influence me?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democracy?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes:

DR8.2

Describe the influence of the treaty relationship on Canadian identity.

Indicators:

  • Describe the influence of varying views of the land in motivating the treaty relationship.
  • Explore unfulfilled aspects of Treaty (e.g., education, health care) in Canada.
  • Explore the Treaty Land Entitlement process in Canada.
  • Relate land claims and fishing and hunting rights to treaty provisions.
  • Represent the benefits of the treaties for all Canadians.

DR8.3

Assess how historical events in Canada have affected the present Canadian identity

Indicators:

  • Describe Canada’s role in world conflicts since the beginning of the 20th century (e.g., World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Suez Crisis, the Gulf War, the UN mission in Bosnia, the Afghanistan mission).
  • Assess the impact of a variety of important historical events in shaping the Canadian identity (e.g., the effect of the Royal Proclamation 1763 on Francophone and Indigenous peoples; the fur trade economy; Quebec Act 1774; the Acadian deportation; the Loyalist migration; the War of 1812; Canada’s role in World War I; the creation of the health care system; peace-keeping activities; the role of the RCMP in the development of the Canadian West; Canadian Confederation 1867; the building of the national railroad; the Métis resistance 1870 and 1885; John A. Macdonald’s National Policy 1879; October Crisis 1970; the development of the Canadarm; the development of the music and film industry in French and in English in Canada).
  • Examine the influence of American mass media and popular culture on the Canadian way of life.
  • Analyze the similarities and differences in the values, beliefs, and ways of life of Canadians and Americans.
  • Compare the perspectives taken in cases of injustice in Canadian history (e.g., the vote for women, vote for Indigenous peoples, Chinese head tax, internment of Japanese and Ukrainian Canadians, restrictions on immigration of Jews during World War II).

PA8.2

Examine the role of power and authority in the application of diverse decision-making processes in a variety of contexts.

Indicators:

  • Contribute to classroom decision making by using the majority-rule model and the consensus model.
  • Formulate contexts in which the majority-rule model and the consensus model would be effective.
  • Investigate and describe the consensus decision-making model employed in traditional Indigenous communities or jurisdictions.
  • Describe traditional First Nations, Inuit, and Métis models of governance and selection of leaders.
  • Compare the structure of leadership and decision-making process in an Indigenous community to that of the parliamentary system in Canada.

PA8.3

Present the evolution of a piece of legislation, from its first conception to its implementation.

Indicators

  • Report to the class on the evolution of a rule or a policy presently used in an area of the school (e.g., playground: a student riding his bicycle on the school grounds before parking it hits another student, which causes caregiver, parent phone calls, staff meetings, school board concern, and a policy which prevents students from riding bicycles on the school ground).
  • Formulate a plan for the recommendation of a new policy for the student body, including the issue requiring resolution, identification of the policy options providing resolution, explanation of how the proposed options might resolve the issue, and recording the process of the selection of the recommended option.
  • Describe the catalyst for a law recently enacted, tracing the need and process for enacting the new law.
  • Represent the roles and responsibilities of various players in executive government, including the Prime Minister, the House of Commons, the Senate, and the Governor-General.
  • Outline the processes of a bill becoming law.

PA8.4

Assess the impact of citizens’ willingness and ability to actively engage in the Canadian political processes.

Indicators

  • Present the reasons community members have chosen to run for office or to accept a leadership appointment (e.g., student representative council member; municipal or band council member; Member of the Legislative Assembly; school board member; health board member; community service organization leader).
  • Describe examples of legislation or policy at a variety of governance levels (federal, provincial, First Nation, or Métis) which were initiated, modified, or rejected as a result of public pressure.
  • Review the website of a provincial or federal political party, and propose and justify a redesign of the website in order to engage adolescents in political activity
  • Investigate the political involvement of community members, including why people choose to vote or not vote, and why people choose to join or not join a political party.
  • Articulate the reasons a person would get involved in the Canadian political system and the possible actions which might be taken (e.g., lobby Members of Parliament, hold elected members accountable, work for a political party, be informed).
  • Analyze the obstacles to political involvement (e.g., language, culture, disability, socio-economic status, gender, time constraints, apathy).
  • Propose avenues for people to individually and collectively influence the Canadian political system (e.g., voting, civil disobedience, participation in political parties, labour organizations, non-governmental organizations).
  • Speculate about the characteristics of the school or community environment without the involvement of people in its leadership and decision-making processes (e.g., What if no one runs for student council office; no one participates in SRC planned events; no one runs for local government office; no one belongs to community organizations).
  • Research and report on the consequences of the non-engagement in the electoral process (e.g., 1932 German election).
  • Construct an action plan for his or her personal involvement in the Canadian political system.

Part B Learning Plan

  • What is Canada’s identity?
  • Does Canada have a singular identity?
  • How did we get our identity? What helped us develop our identity?
  • Is Canada’s identity, culture and ethnic background specific?
  • What do Canadians value? Why do we value the things that we do?
  • What does our behaviour, our governing policies say about our identity?
  • How does affirming multiculturalism impact Canada’s identity?
  • How does having diverse cultures in your community affect Canada’s identity?
  • How does multiculturalism contribute to Canada’s identity?
  • What is required for multiculturalism to work in a democratic society?
Teacher Note

Guiding questions are suggested to support teachers as they explore the essential questions.  Teachers are encouraged to use the questions that support their classroom work and make wording changes or add additional questions as required.  Guiding questions are more closely related to the inquiry.

Students are always invited and encouraged to add their own questions for discovery.

Students will:

  • Examine and identify the determiners of the Canadian identity exploring the impacts of historical, environmental, and treaty responsibilities. DR8.2, 8.3
  • Examine the role of power and authority in the application of diverse decision-making processes. PA8.2
  • Trace the evolution of a piece of legislation from conception to implementation. PA8.3
  • Explore the impact of Canadian citizen involvement in Canada’s political process. 4

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • Does democracy work? How could democracy be improved?
    • How does democracy affect you on a daily basis?
    • Is democracy the fairest way to represent people?
    • How is “fairness” determined in a democracy?
    • Do you think our democratic Canadian government is fair to all Canadians?
    • Can and should a democratic government aim to be fair to its constituents?
    • What is the impact of democracy on Canada’s identity?
  • What is the relationship between rights and responsibilities?
    • What sorts of rights do you have and what responsibilities do those rights create?
    • What responsibilities does living in a democracy create?
    • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the (global) community’s needs?
  • How do my actions influence others? / How do others actions influence you?
    • How do you control the impact of your actions/decisions?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?
  • What is the impact of affirming multiculturalism in a democracy?
    • How does Canada’s observance of multiculturalism impact governing decisions?
    • How does having diverse cultures in your community affect the way you live?
    • What is the appropriate Citizenship response to multiculturalism?
    • How does multi-culturalism impact Canadian identity?

Vocabulary

  • First Nations
  • Métis
  • Inuit
  • Francophone
  • Democracy
  • Municipal
  • Provincial
  • Federal
  • Consensus
  • Legislation
Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions. 

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the inquiry where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
These inquiries ask students to consider what constitutes Canadian identity and what influences Canadian identity.  Students will examine:

  • Canada’s relationship with First Nations people through treaties,
  • the impact of historical events, and
  • the impact of living close to a superpower,

to determine the impact on our behaviours and identity. 

Inquiry

What is Canada’s Identity? 

What does it mean to be Canadian? 

How did we develop our identity? 

  • What is Canada’s identity?
  • Does Canada have a singular identity?
  • How did we get our identity? What helped us develop our identity?
  • Is Canada’s identity, culture and ethnic background specific?
  • What do Canadians value? Why do we value the things that we do?
  • What does our behaviour, our governing policies say about our identity?
  • How does affirming multiculturalism impact Canada’s identity?
  • How does having diverse cultures in your community affect Canada’s identity?
  • How does multiculturalism contribute to Canada’s identity?
  • What is required for multiculturalism to work in a democratic society?
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and give each group a specific area of research to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the question posed below.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

  • Pose questions and have students identify their thinking. Look for themes and post student thinking for later reflection throughout the inquiry.
  • Listen to Shane Koyczan, Canadian spoken word poet, writer, and author’s poem about Canadian identity delivered at the 2010 Olympics.Complete text – http://www.yaletown.ca/we-are-more-olympic-speech/
  • Do students agree/disagree with the ideas presented? Why?
  • Review questions and student answers to see if student thinking has changed. Note and post changes.
  • What themes are emerging?
  • Compare students’ responses about Canada’s identity to the information explored in the following inquiries.  How does student thinking about Canada’s identity change?  What kind of a global citizen is Canada?
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Teacher Background Information
For background information on Saskatchewan treaties with First Nations.

http://firstpeoplesofcanada.com/fp_treaties/fp_treaties_menu.html

A. What is the influence of treaty relationships on Canadian identity? (DR8.2)

Canada has a long history with First Nations people.  We have negotiated treaties with many, but not all, First Nations.

What impact/influence has our treaty relationships and responsibilities had on Canada’s identity?

Throughout this inquiry, students will be comparing negotiations from two perspectives:

  1. First Nations
  2. The British Crown

Examination of Canada’s treaty responsibilities are divided into two specific considerations:

  1. Treaty Responsibilities
  2. Outstanding Land Claims
These are very big concepts.  As students present their findings, teachers should help students step back to look for themes and answers to the overarching, essential questions.  Students should also be asked to consider why differences in interpretation and perspective exist.
  1. Treaty Responsibilities
  • How did the varying worldviews (Studied in Lifelong Learning and in Treaty Education) impact the motivation and the understanding of the treaties signed by the First Nations with the British Europeans?
    • Outline the particular worldview of each negotiating party
    • Tell what they hoped to negotiate
    • Tell why they entered into negotiations
    • Identify similarities and differences in perspectives in the resulting treaty provisions
    • Map the respective treaty areas in Canada
  • As a class or in cooperative groups
    • Identify the benefits of treaties for all Canadians
    • Identify the current state of treaty responsibilities.
      • Identify any unfulfilled contracts of Treaty (e.g., education, health care) in Canada.
  • What do these unfulfilled contracts say about Canada’s view of our responsibilities?
  • How does this reflect on Canada’s identity?
Teachers are encouraged to use the jigsaw research and study process so that students investigate Canada’s policies and behaviour in these two areas from two very different perspectives. 

Alternately teachers may choose to assign specific components of each inquiry to specific student groups. 

Research and study information can be learned many different ways.  Reading text is one way and other means of gaining information such as interviews, viewing video, should be allowed.

See the appendix for graphic organizers to support student research.

2. Outstanding/Unresolved Land Claims

Treaty Land Entitlement Process

  • Explore the Treaty Land Entitlement process in Canada.
    • Explain what it is and what is in it
    • What does this process say about what Canadians value?
    • Whose worldview do the terms reflect?
    • What do the terms say about: what Canadians value, Canadian identity?
    • Map impacted areas
  • Relate land claims and fishing and hunting rights to treaty provisions.
    • Identify the issues of existing land claims
    • Identify the issues of existing fishing and hunting rights disputes
    • Map the impacted areas
    • What areas of treaty are being contested?
    • What do these contested aspects say about Canada’s view of our responsibilities?
    • How does Canada’s behaviour reflect on Canada’s identity?

As a class…

  • What is the impact of unfulfilled Treaty responsibilities on Canadian identity?
  • What do the following say about what Canadians value?
    • unresolved Treaty terms
    • outstanding land claims,
    • hunting and fishing rights claims
  • What do these contested aspects/issues say about Canada’s view of our responsibilities?
    • Are Canadians united in their views?
    • How does this reflect on Canadian identity?
  • What themes are emerging?
For additional background information on treaties, teachers are encouraged to use information from the Treaty Kits or visit

http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/aboriginal-treaties/

Graphic Organizers are provided in the appendix to support students’ research.

B. What is the impact of history on Canada’s identity? (DR8.3)

What kind of a global citizen is Canada?

World Conflict

Canada has been involved in a variety of world conflicts.  Have students investigate and describe Canada’s role in world conflicts since the beginning of the 20th century.

  • World War I (1914 – 1918)
  • World War II (1939 – 1945)
  • the Korean War (1950 – 1953)
  • the Suez Crisis (1958-1960)
  • the Gulf War (1990)
  • the UN mission in Bosnia (2000)
  • the Afghanistan mission (2004 – 2014)
  • What similarities and themes are emerging in Canada’s role?
  • How has Canada’s role as a global citizen changed?
  • What do the changing roles say about what Canadians value?
  • How do these events contribute to Canada’s identity?
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and give each group a specific area of research to learn about and present to class.  Each group must find out the information in the question posed below.

Encourage students to learn about and present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

What was the impact of a variety of important historical events in shaping the Canadian Identity?

Internal Historical Canadian Events

1763 – 1814

  • The effect of the Royal Proclamation 1763 on Francophone and Aboriginal peoples;
  • The fur trade economy (1784 +)
  • Quebec Act (1774)
  • The Acadian deportation (1755-1762)
  • The Loyalist migration (1783)
  • The War of 1812 (1812-1814)
  • What similarities and themes are emerging in the impact of these events on Canada?
  • Do all Canadians view historical events the same way?
  • What are these events saying about what Canadians value?
  • How/What do they add to Canada’s identity?

1867 – 1984

  • The role of the RCMP in the development of the Canadian West (1867 +)
  • The Métis resistance (1870 and 1885)
  • Canadian Confederation (1867)
  • John A. Macdonald’s National Policy (1879)
  • The building of the national railroad (1879 – 1865)
  • Canada’s role in World War I (1914 – 1918)
  • Peace-keeping activities (1947-48, 1956)
  • The creation of the health care system;
    • Provincial (1962)
    • Canada Health Act (1984)
  • What similarities and themes are emerging regarding the impact of these events on Canada?
  • Do all Canadians view historical events the same way?
  • What are these events saying about what Canadians value?
  • How/What do they add to Canada’s identity?
  • What accounts for the changes in Canada’s role over the years?

1970 – 2014

  • October Crisis 1970
  • The development of the Canadarm 1982
  • The development of the music and film industry in French and in English in Canada).
  • What similarities and themes are emerging regarding the impact of these events on Canada?
  • Do all Canadians view historical events the same way?
  • What are they saying about what Canadians value?
  • How/What do they add to Canada’s identity?
  • What accounts for the changes in Canada’s role over the years?
These are very “big” concepts.  Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

Compare the perspectives taken in cases of injustice in Canadian history.

  • The vote for women,
    • Ontario – 1884
    • Manitoba – 1916
    • Canada – 191,
    • Quebec – 1940
  • Vote for Aboriginal peoples (1960)
  • 60’s Scoop (1960 – 1980)
  • Chinese head tax (1858)
  • Internment of Japanese and Ukrainian Canadians
  • Restrictions on immigration of Jews during World War II
  • Residential schools for Aboriginal children
  • What similarities and themes are emerging regarding the impact of these events on Canada?
  • Do all Canadians view historical events the same way?
  • What are they saying about what Canadians value?
  • How/What do they add to Canada’s identity?
  • What accounts for the changes in Canada’s role over the years?
In all areas of research, teachers are reminded to consider other means of gaining information aside from reading text.  Who are the resident experts of your community who might be invited into the classroom to have conversations with students? 
What is the impact on Canada’s identity as a result of living next to the United States?

How are Canadians and Americans the same? Different?  (see graphic organizer)

Analyze and identify the similarities and differences between Canadians and Americans:

  • In the values
  • Beliefs
  • Ways of life
  • Examine the influence of American mass media and popular culture on the Canadian way of life. (Canadian identity)

 

  • What similarities and themes are emerging in the comparisons between Canadians and Americans?
  • What do these similarities and differences say about what Canadians value?
  • How does Canada’s proximity to the USA change the perception and development of Canada’s identity?

Have students go back and listen to/study the poem by Shane Koyczan – We are More. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oBmI00trLLU

  • What do they agree with? Why?
  • What do they disagree with? Why?
  • What would they add? Why?

Compare students’ responses about Canada’s identity to their thinking about Canada’s identity after exploring the inquiries.  How has student thinking about Canada’s identity change?  What kind of a global citizen is Canada?

Some of the themes that surface can be used as a point of comparison between Canada and the United States of America.

For each country have students research:

  • Foods
  • Movies watched
  • Clothing
  • Technology
  • Living accommodations
  • Jobs
  • Transportation
  • Spiritual organizations
  • Education system
  • Health care system
  • Justice system
  • Governance structures
  • Other?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.
Attend a First Nation ceremony to learn more about their culture.

  • Follow the efforts to build oil pipelines in Canada and USA. Consider the safety valve that First Nation environmental protections are offering to Canadian society. (i.e. Keystone Pipeline, Mackenzie Pipeline, Oil Sands.) Deliver your findings in a news report for a news broadcast.
  • Attend a Canadian Citizenship ceremony. What did you learn about Canadian identity?
  • Examine the “Idle No More” Movement.
    • What influence did the movement have on Canada’s identity?
    • What values and beliefs were predominant in the movement?
    • Whose perspectives were represented?
    • What will be the long term effects of the movement?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the inquiry where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry. 
In this inquiry students will explore the principles and process of a democracy.  They will:

  • Explore decision making processes.
  • Examine First Nations governance.
  • Follow a piece of legislation from idea to law.
Inquiry – The Workings of Democracy

  • How does Democracy work?
  • Can Democracy be improved?
  • Can a democratic government be fair to everyone? Should it be?
  • Is democracy dependent on the people or can democracy exist without people’s support?
  • What is democracy? What is the purpose of it?
  • How are students impacted by democracy?
  • Does democracy work?

Have students develop a definition of democracy.  They should consider processes of decision making and organizational structure.

Chart student thinking for later reflection.  Within groups have students describe the impact of democracy on their personal lives, school, community, city and country.

  • Ways that democracy works for them.
  • Ways that democracy does not work.

Post student ideas; talk about how decisions are made within these various categories.

Identify the rules or laws that impact them in the following areas and identify the decision making process used in each area.

  • Personal lives – family rules
  • School lives – school rules, school council (SRC)
  • Community lives – (local, municipal, provincial, federal)
  • City – (municipal, provincial, federal)
  • Country – (federal)

Identify the corresponding level of government that has responsibility for the particular area.  Later students will use this information to examine different ways of decision-making.

How do your rights affect your responsibilities?

  • Discuss the statement “for every right there is a responsibility.” What does that mean to students?
  • Think about democracy…
    • What sort of rights do you have as a result of democracy?
    • What responsibilities do you have as a result of living in a democracy?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?

Post student thinking.

Consider inviting guests new to Canada to give their views on rights and responsibilities from their country of origin’s perspective.  Identify the similarities and differences between student responses and those of the guest.

  • Is democracy ideal?
  • Do you think our democratic Canadian government is fair to all Canadians?
  • Can and should a democratic government be fair to all?
Students studied various models of governance in Grade 7 so they have some experience with understanding democracy. 

Students who are new to Canada are invited to reflect on their home country to identify the kinds of governance they have experienced.

What rights and responsibilities did students have in their country of origin?  What responses do students from other countries give to the questions about democracy?

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Have your class make a few decisions using the consensus and majority-rule model.

Discuss with students the feeling of satisfaction with the different decision making processes.

How satisfied were people with each process?  What if they disagreed with the decision?  How did they feel?  Which did they feel was most effective?  Why?

A. Decision Making Processes (PA8.2)

  • Why do we make decisions the way we do?
  • How are decisions made in a democracy?
  • What does our decision making process say about what we value?
  • How do groups of people make decisions? (see appendix)
  • If another form of decision-making other than majority-rule is used is the decision still democratic?
  • What is the relationship between power and authority in decision making?

Poll students to find out how many decision making processes they know.  Go back to the initial discussion in the “Connecting” section that lists the various forms of democracy to which students belong and identify the kind of decision-making processes used in those organizations.  (These organizations were the ones that students listed as being a democracy that impacted their lives.)

Surface the unknown vocabulary around decision-making.  Clarify with students:

  • Majority-rule model
  • Consensus model

Invite various leaders to the classroom to talk about the decision making processes they follow within their organizations or leadership roles. Ask for the leaders’ thoughts on the questions about decision making that students have been considering.

Possible leaders include:

  • School administration
  • Student leadership council
  • Elders
  • Spiritual leaders
  • Local First Nations leaders
  • City, town, rural municipality leaders

The consensus decision making model was used in traditional Aboriginal communities.

Using the jigsaw research approach have students:

  • Investigate and describe the consensus decision-making model employed in traditional Aboriginal communities or jurisdictions.
  • Describe traditional First Nations, Inuit, and Métis models of governance and selection of leaders.
  • Compare and contrast the structure of leadership and decision-making process in an Aboriginal community to that of the parliamentary system in Canada.
  • Identify the similarities and differences, strengths and areas of improvement.

See Part C for resources

Refer back to the questions associated with the inquiry.

  • Why did First Nations, Inuit and Métis people use this process for decision making?
  • What does it say about what they valued?
  • Can consensus decision making be used in a democracy?
In all areas of research, teachers are reminded to consider other means of gaining information aside from reading text.  Who are the resident experts of your community who might be invited into the classroom to have conversations with students?  Who are the people in your division office or in the First Nations Band office who can put you in touch with Traditional Knowledge Keepers?

Consider electronic means of extending student access to information.

B. Making the rules. Comparing levels of governance – mandates and responsibilities.

  • How does a rule or a policy come into being? How does it become law? (PA8.3)
    • Local, Band, Provincial, Federal level
  • What do law makers have to consider when making laws?
Find an example from the paper of a recent law or policy put into place that resonates with students i.e. skateboarding, riding ATV’s, texting and driving

  • Talk with students about the evolution of the rule or a policy presently used in an area of the school/community/province
  • Surface what students know about the processes

Outline the processes of a bill becoming law.  Research and identify:

  • the specific policy, bylaw, law
  • Have students discover the processes that went into place before the policy/bylaw was adopted.
    • Interview a councilor (city, Band, RM,) MLA, MP and describe:
      • Reasons/causes that created the incident/the catalyst/reason for the bylaw/law recently enacted
      • Processes and discussion that occurred to deal with the incident/tracing the need
      • Result
      • The process for enacting the new law.

Outline the roles and responsibilities of various players in executive government, at the Federal level.  (See graphic organizer in Appendix)

  • Prime Minister
  • The House of Commons
  • The Senate
  • The Governor-General
This part of the inquiry has students examining the process by which laws are made.  To ensure that students understand the difference between the various levels of government, choose a policy, bylaw, provincial and federal law so that they can compare processes and spheres of influence of governing bodies.
Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

C. Democracy and its Responsibilities (PA8.4)

  • What causes people to become involved?
  • Is democracy dependent on the people or can democracy exist without people’s support?

Essential questions:

  • How do your rights affect your responsibilities?
    • What rights do you have and what responsibilities do you have that match up with those rights?
    • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the community’s needs?/global needs?
    • What does it mean to be Canadian? What is your identity as a Canadian?
    • How are all Canadians the same? How are they different?
  • How does democracy work?
    • Is democracy dependent on the people or can democracy exist without people’s support?
    • How does an individual make their views known?
  • How do my actions influence others?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?

What is the students’ responsibility to support and protect democratic processes?

Review students’ previous thinking.   How has their thinking changed after their inquiries?  Note changes to thinking.

Speculate about the characteristics of the school or community environment without the involvement of people in its leadership and decision-making processes

What if:

  • No one runs for student council office
  • No one participates in SRC planned events
  • No one runs for local government office
  • No one belongs to community organizations

Participation

  • Interview individuals who have chosen to run for office or to accept a leadership appointment. Present the reasons for their decision.  Possible Interviewees:
    • student representative council member
    • municipal or band council member
    • Member of the Legislative Assembly
    • school board member
    • health board member
    • community service organization leader
  • Investigate the political involvement of community members, including why:
    • people choose to vote or not vote, and why
    • people choose to join or not join a political party.
  • What are the commonalities that students are noticing?
  • What themes are emerging?  How does this connect with/resonate with your understanding of Canadian identity?
Resident Experts

  • Invite a Member of Parliament to visit the class sharing their perspectives of the decision-making process.
  • Invite a City Councillor to speak to the class regarding the decision-making process in civic matters.
  • Discuss with them why they think participation in the decision making process is important.
Brainstorm with students a list of possible interview questions.
Becoming involved in Democracy – Means of Public Pressure

Following are some of the processes accessible to interact with Canada’s political system.

  • Identify the reasons for and possible steps to take to:
    • lobby Members of Parliament
    • hold elected members accountable
    • work for a political party
    • be informed
  • How do they deter people from becoming involved?
  • How could the issues be resolved?
  • These are some of the obstacles to political involvement.
    • language
    • culture
    • disability
    • socio-economic status
    • gender
    • time constraints
    • apathy
  • What are the commonalities that students are noticing?
  • What themes are emerging? How does this connect with/resonate with your understanding of the Canadian identity?

Following are some of the ways people can individually and collectively influence the Canadian political system.  Identify

  • voting
  • civil disobedience
  • participation in political parties
  • labour organizations
  • non-governmental organizations
Have students think about the processes by which laws are made.  Go back and choose a particular law, bylaw, or regulation and decide which means of public pressure would be most useful in making change.

Describe examples of legislation or policy at a variety of governance levels which were initiated, modified, or rejected as a result of public pressure.

  • federal
  • provincial
  • First Nation, or Métis

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to extend the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.
Apathy and Democracy

What happens when good people do nothing?

  • Research and report on the consequences of the non-engagement in the electoral process (e.g., 1932 German election).
  • Construct an action plan for one’s personal involvement in the Canadian political system. What is the issue, how would you become involved?
  • Using a debate format, have students debate a society where the citizens don’t participate in the roles and responsibilities of being an active citizen, as opposed to one where they do. Reflect on the debate process and the outcomes of the experience.
  • Discuss the meaning of ‘rights and responsibility’ as connected to being a citizen.
    • How is being a Canadian citizen unique in regards to First Nations, Inuit, Métis and Francophone citizens?
    • How are Canadian ‘rights and responsibilities’ effected by these historical relationships?
  • Make a list of the ways a Canadian citizen can be a participating citizen demonstrating their ability to meet their civic responsibilities.
  • Review the website of a provincial or federal political party, and propose and justify redesign of the website in order to engage adolescents in political activity.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Students completed two large inquiries that added layers of information to the essential questions discussed at the start of the inquiries.  Invite students to identify how they are going to demonstrate their current understanding of the essential questions.

Go back to reflect on student thinking on the essential questions.  How has their thinking changed?  Why has their thinking changed?

Students should be able demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The influences on Canada’s identity.
  • The processes of democracy
  • The roles and responsibilities of the Federal government

Have students demonstrate their current understanding by identifying their response to the prompts provided below.

What is Canada’s Identity?  What does it mean to be Canadian?  How did we develop our identity?  Is there a singular Canadian identity?

What kind of a global citizen is Canada?  How is Canada, the Canadian, viewed in other parts of the world?  Does our global identity match our perception?

  • Have students create a representation i.e. visual – collage, commercial, performing (drama, music) which that expresses their views on Canada’s identity.
  • Respond to the following:

“You look at the history — the aboriginal people welcomed the first settlers here with open arms, fed us and took care of us … that continues today, we welcome people from all nations to come in and share.”

Peter Stoffer – http://www.allgreatquotes.com/canada_quotes.shtml

https://www.insidetoronto.com/news-story/23619-talking-about-canada/

 

How does the above quote represent the collective attitude of Canadians?

  • Do you see Canadians as being welcoming to other nations?
  • Do we recognize that First Nation people welcomed us here? Give examples to support your statements.
  • Create your own video, poem, song, display indicating your view of “I am Canadian” or “My Canada is…”

The Workings of Democracy – Exploring the Principles and Processes

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • How does democracy work?
  • Is democracy ideal? / Is democracy the fairest way to represent people?
  • How do your rights affect your responsibilities?
  • How can your actions influence others?
  • Working independently or in groups, develop a definition of democracy including a list of characteristics of a democratic society. Design your own country with democratic governance.
  • Formulate contexts in which the majority-rule model and the consensus model would be effective.
  • Formulate a plan for the recommendation of a new policy for the student body, including the:
    • issue requiring resolution
    • identification of the policy options providing resolution
    • explanation of how the proposed options might resolve the issue
    • recording the process of the selection of the recommended option
    • Role play the scenario using the majority-rule model
    • Role play the scenario using the consensus model
  • Responsibility and Democracy – What is the relationship?
    • Prepare a “Rick Mercer Rant” to identify the relationship, as you understand it.
    • ‘Represent’ your response using any medium you choose.
Encourage students to represent their thinking in a variety of media representations, considering visual, audio, performing options.

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an ongoing journal.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and should be completed with a sense of pride.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • Canada often sends observers to monitor elections in other countries to make sure they follow democratic processes. What do you think of this practice?
  • How have you been involved in the electoral system? What supported your involvement or what kept you from getting involved?
  • Write a critique of Canadian democracy. What are the strengths? How would you improve it?
  • Respond to any of the essential questions.

Part C

Inquiry Resources

All websites accessed November 2017.

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR8: Analyze the impact of treaty on the Métis people.
  • SI8: Assess the impact residential schools have on First Nations communities.
  • HC8: Examine how Provincial, Territorial, and Aboriginal governments, who have not negotiated treaty, work to respect each other’s interests.
  • TPP8: Assess whether the terms of treaty have been honoured and to what extent the treaty obligations have been fulfilled.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • USC8.2 Analyze how personal prejudices/biases, and habits of mind shape assumptions about family identities, structures, roles, and responsibilities.
  • USC8.3 Investigate and analyze the impact of in/formal supports and services (including testing/diagnostic services) available to individuals, families, and communities infected with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases (including HIV and Hepatitis C).
  • USC8.4 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of violence (including but not limited to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, spiritual abuse, and neglect) on the well-being of and the supports needed for self, family, and community.
  • USC8.5 Assess how body image satisfaction/dissatisfaction and over-reliance on appearance as a source of identity and self-esteem affects the quality of life of self and family.
  • USC8.6 Examine and assess the concept of sustainability from many perspectives, and develop an understanding of its implications for the well-being of self, others, and the environment.
  • USC8.7 Assess the social, cultural, and environmental influences on and supports for sexual health knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and decisions.

Decision Making

  • DM8.9 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges, and establish “support others” personal goal statements, related to family roles and responsibilities, non-curable infections/diseases, violence and abuse, body image, sustainability, and sexual health.

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Take the Canadian identity survey or choose excerpts that will resonate with your classroom.What Canadian Identity?  Which Canadian values?  – http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/cur/socstud/foundation_gr9/blms/9-1-3b.pdf
  • “You look at the history — the aboriginal people welcomed the first settlers here with open arms, fed us and took care of us … that continues today, we welcome people from all nations to come in and share.”Peter Stoffer http://www.canada4life.ca/quotes.php
How does the above quote represent the collective attitude of Canadians? Do you see us as being welcoming to other nations? Do we recognize that the First Nation people welcomed us here? Give examples to support your statements.

  • Great philosophers, politicians and artists, from Confucius to Winston Churchill to Stompin’ Tom Connors, have commented on the roles and responsibilities of a citizen. Read the following quotes and comment on their connection to a democratic country. Create your own quote on responsibility of a Canadian citizen.
  • Students create a video on “What is a Canadian”/ “I am Canadian”.
  • Simulate a democratic process, but secretly setup each candidate to create unfairness among the candidates. (bribes, more advertisement etc.)
  • Role play a situation where for every right there is a responsibility. Ie. Freedom of Speech.

Glossary

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Aboriginal

The native, indigenous people of a country are often called aboriginals. In Canada, First Nations, Inuit and Métis people would be considered aboriginals.

The adjective form of aboriginal is used to describe anything related to the native, indigenous people. You may visit a museum that has an exhibit of aboriginal art; or, if you’re a linguist, you may study aboriginal languages. The adjective can also be used to describe something that is indigenous to a place and existed there from the beginning, such as “an aboriginal forest” that consists of old, old trees.

Consensus

When there’s a consensus, everyone agrees on something. If you’re going to a movie with friends, you need to reach a consensus about which movie everyone wants to see.

Ever notice how people disagree about just about everything, from who’s the best baseball player to how high taxes should be? Whenever there’s disagreement, there’s no consensus: consensus means everyone is on the same page. When you’re talking about all the people in the world, it’s hard to find a consensus on anything. There are just too many opinions. However, in a smaller group, reaching a consensus is possible.

Constituents

Constituent means part of a whole, as in “we’ll break this down into its constituent parts.” The word comes up often in political contexts: constituents are the people politicians have been elected to represent.

To understand constituent, look at constitute, which means to make up. A politician’s electorate is constituted of individual constituent voters. Chex Party Mix is constituted of a delightful mix of constituent parts: Chex cereal, pretzels, cheese doodles and those little orange stick things no one has a name for.

Democracy 

Whether you’re talking about your glee club or a powerful nation, the word democracy describes government based on participation of the people, either directly or through elected representatives.

Democracy traces back to the Greek words demos, meaning “people,” and kratia, meaning “power.” “People power” remains central to democracy, whether you’re describing a country or a much smaller organization. If your glee club is run as a democracy, then everybody gets to vote on questions like what you’re going to sing and what kind of outfits you’re going to wear. Because democracy assumes some idea of equality, it’s often used to mean a just society, one in which everyone is treated equally.

Federal

Federal Government popularly refers to the national or dominion level of government, and in its most general sense includes the executive, legislative and judicial branches, along with the numerous departments and agencies comprising the administrative branch.

Federal Government

Federal Government popularly refers to the national or dominion level of government, and in its most general sense includes the executive, legislative and judicial branches, along with the numerous departments and agencies comprising the administrative branch.

The 3 principles regulating the powers of the various components of government and the relationships between them are inherited from Britain: parliamentary supremacy, meaning that the Senate and House of Commons acting in conjunction with the Crown possess constitutional plenary powers to legislate; the fusion of executive and legislative instruments, eg, as opposed to the US principle of separation of powers; and the Rule of Law, applied and maintained by an independent judiciary. The relationship between the legislature and the Cabinet is held in equilibrium by the doctrine of individual and collective ministerial responsibility to the legislature. If the executive can maintain the confidence of the legislature, it can continue to govern. If not, a Cabinet must resign or seek dissolution of the legislature and call an election.

A more precise definition of federal government focuses on the term “federal.” A federal government is distinct from a unitary government, eg, that of Britain. In the latter, there is only one seat of ultimate authority. In a federal government, there are 2 independent seats of authority. Parliament and the provinces are each assigned certain powers and jurisdictional terrain. In practice, this subdivision modifies the principle of parliamentary supremacy; each separate level of government is supreme as long as it does not trespass on the preserve of the other. The umpire for resolving jurisdictional disputes is the Supreme Court of Canada.

First Nations

Canadian

An organized aboriginal group or community, especially any of the bands officially recognized by the Canadian government.

First Nations

Usage Note: First Nation has gained wide acceptance in Canada since the early 1980s. Like Native American (which has little currency in Canada), First Nation provides a respectful alternative to Indian, a term that is more likely to be taken as directly offensive in Canada than it is in the United States. However, there are several differences between the Canadian and American expressions. First Nation is essentially a political term, promoted from within the indigenous community as a substitute for band in referring to any of the numerous aboriginal groups formally recognized by the Canadian government under the federal Indian Act of 1876. Unlike Native American, it is not a comprehensive term for all indigenous peoples of the Americas or even of Canada, and while it is often used loosely in referring to Indian groups or communities other than those specified in the 1876 Act, it specifically does not include non-Indian peoples such as the Inuit or the Métis. Although each recognized band or community is a First Nation, the term is more commonly used in the plural with a general collective sense, as in a history of the First Nations in eastern Canada or a program designed for First Nations youth. There is no related form for an individual who is a member of a First Nation; officially, such a person is known as a status Indian.

Métis

“Métis are people of mixed European and Indigenous ancestry, and one of the three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada.  The use of the term Métis is complex and contentious, and has different historical and contemporary meanings.”

Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/metis/.

Author: Adam Gaudrey. Jan. 7, 2009. November 2017

Indigenous

Use indigenous to describe a plant, animal or person that is native or original to an area. Though Switzerland is known for its chocolates, chocolate, which comes from the cocoa plant, is indigenous to South America.

Indigenous, aboriginal, and native all mean the same thing.  Aboriginal, however, is commonly used in connection with Australia, and native with North America. The most neutral of the three terms, indigenous comes from the Latin word, indigena meaning “a native.” An indigenous ceremony or religion is one traditionally used by a certain group of people.

Inuit

A member of the Indigenous peoples inhabiting northernmost North America from northern Alaska to eastern Canada and Greenland.

The language of the Inuit, a member of the Eskimo-Aleut family comprising a variety of dialects.

Francophone

Speaking French, especially as a member of a French-speaking population.

A person who speaks French, especially a native speaker.

Legislation

Legislation is the act or process of making or enacting laws. Some people think there should be more legislation in the area of education and some people think there should be less — governments debates the matter periodically.

The noun legislation refers to the actual law enacted by a legislative body at the national, state, or local level. There has been some very odd legislation over the years. In one state it was illegal to kiss on a train; in another, it was illegal to take a bath on Sunday. The sweeping legislation made radical changes to tax law, health care, and immigration law.

Majority

Majority means “most of,” or the biggest part. Does the majority of what owls eat — mice, rats, squirrels, moles — sound appetizing to you? If not, you’re probably in the majority of people.

In an election, victory usually goes to whoever wins the majority of votes, or more than half of them. The opposite of majority is minority. A majority of the more than one billion Roman Catholics in the world live in Latin America; a small minority of all Roman Catholics live in Asia.

Minority

If you have eight pennies and twelve dimes, the minority of your coins are pennies. The word minority is often used to describe people when their race or religion is shared by less than half of a nation.  If you have red hair, you are in the minority as most people have blonde or brown hair. . Majority is the opposite of minority.

Multiculturalism

Do you think different cultures can and should get along — and be celebrated? Then you believe in multiculturalism.

Multiculturalism is an optimistic philosophy that says if we learn about and accept other cultures, we’ll all get along better. Sometimes multiculturalism is celebrated by eating food from other countries or learning about how people live in different parts of the world. When you study multiculturalism, you usually learn two things: how different other people are, and how similar they are, too.

Municipal

A municipality refers to a village, town, or city that’s usually governed by a mayor and council. From this noun, we get the adjective municipal, which you can use to describe something that relates to a town or its government.

Your town’s city council may have offices in the municipal building downtown. If you want to fight city hall, that would be the place to go. Municipal also more generally describes anything related to the town or city itself. If you live within the city limits, for example, your house may be hooked into the municipal water supply, but if you live outside the city limits you may have to have your own well.

Provincial

Something or someone provincial belongs to a province, or region outside of the city. Provincial has a straightforward meaning when describing where someone is from, but it has some other shades of meaning too. Something provincial can be quaint and in a pleasing rural or country style, but it also can imply someone less sophisticated, as in someone with provincial, or simple, tastes. Individuals or groups of people who are considered narrow-minded are often labeled provincial, even if they’re from the city.

Treaty

When a war ends, often two countries will sign a treaty, which is a contract where both sides agree to behave a certain way. Treaties are used for many reasons, like creating alliances or preventing nuclear weapons from being built.

The Latin root of treaty is tractare, which means “handle.” When two nations sign a treaty, they decide to handle things according to rules defined in their agreement. However, treaties are not always permanent, and can be broken if one side changes their mind.

Values

Values are the beliefs of a social group. These are often very strongly held beliefs and they are often for something or against it.

It’s no surprise that the word values comes from a word that means “to be worth something”: People often view their values as so precious that they’d be willing to fight for them. Sometimes they do fight for them. The “core values” of a company or organization, while maybe not exactly worth fighting for, do, however, represent what that organization believes in and believes its mission to be.

Appendix

We Are More – Olympic Speech – complete text Shane Koyczan/Shane Koyczan Publications Inc.  http://www.shanekoyczan.com

Shane L. Koyczan is a Canadian slam poet. Born in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Koyczan grew up in Penticton, British Columbia. In 2000, he became the first Canadian to win the Individual Championship title at the National Poetry Slam and he did Canada proud when he delivered the poem below to an estimated 3.5 billion viewers during the opening ceremonies at the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics.

Six Decision-Making Processes

#1: Spontaneous Agreement

This form of decision making happens occasionally when there’s a solution that is favored by everyone and 100 percent agreement seems to happen automatically.  These types of decisions are usually made quickly and automatically by the team.  However, they are fairly rare, and occur in connection only with the more trivial or simple issues.  (And yes, this is a real decision-making process.)

Strength: It’s fast, easy, and everyone is happy; it unites the group.

Weakness: May be too fast; perhaps the issue actually needs discussion.

Use this decision-making process when lack of discussion isn’t vital (i.e., issues are trivial); or when issues are not complex, requiring no in-depth discussion.  For instance, when deciding where we want to go to lunch.

#2: One Person Decides

This is a decision that the team decides to refer to one person to make on behalf of the team.  A common misconception among teams is that every decision needs to be made by the whole team.  In fact, a one-person decision is often a faster and more efficient way to get resolution.  The quality of any one person’s decision can be raised considerably if the person making the decision gets advice and input from other team members before deciding.

Strength: It’s fast and accountability is clear; can result in commitment and buy-in if people feel their ideas are represented.

Weakness: It can divide the team if the person deciding doesn’t consult, or makes a decision that others can’t live with; a one-person decision typically lacks in both the buy-in and synergy that come from a team decision-making process.

Use this form when:

  • The issue is unimportant or small.
  • There’s a clear expert on the team, or when only one person has the information needed to make the decision and can’t share it.
  • One person is solely accountable for the outcome.

#3: Compromise (or Negotiation)

A negotiated approach is applicable when there are two or more distinct options and members are strongly polarized (neither side is willing to accept the solution or position put forth by the other side).  A middle position is then created that incorporates ideas from both sides.  Throughout the process of negotiation, everyone wins a few favorite points, but also loses a few items she or he liked.  The outcome is, therefore, something that no one is totally satisfied with.  In compromises, no one feels she or he got what she or he originally wanted, so the emotional reaction is often “It’s not really what I wanted, but I’m going to have to live with it.”

Strength: It generates lots of discussion and does create a solution.

Weakness: Negotiating when people are pushing a favored point of view tends to be adversarial, hence this approach divides the team; in the end, everyone wins, but everyone loses, too.

This form is best used when two opposing solutions are proposed, neither of which are acceptable to everyone; or when the team is strongly polarized and compromise is the only alternative.

#4: Multi-Voting

This is a priority-setting tool that is useful for making decisions when the team has a lengthy set of options and rank-ordering the options, based on a set of criteria, will clarify the best course of action.

Strength: It’s systematic, objective, democratic, non-competitive and participative; everyone wins somewhat, and feelings of loss are minimal; it’s a fast way of sorting out a complex set of options; it often feels consensual.

Weakness: It’s often associated with limited discussion, and hence limited understanding of the options; this may force choices on people that may not be satisfactory to them, because real priorities do not rise to the surface or people are swayed by each other if the voting is done out in the open, rather than electronically or by ballot.

Use this form when there’s a long list of alternatives or items from which to choose to identify the best course of action, such as when faced with a huge list of names and need to rank our top 3 for final decision.  In this case the final say belongs to someone else i.e. management. Used when do not need to invest the time, energy, and emotion into a consensus-based process, as recommendation could be overruled by management.

#5: Majority Voting

This involves asking people to choose the option they favor, once clear choices have been identified.  Usual methods are a show of hands or secret ballot.  The quality of voting is always enhanced if there’s good discussion to share ideas before the vote is taken.

Strength: It’s fast and decisions can be of higher quality if the vote is preceded by a thorough analysis.

Weakness: It can be too fast and low in quality if people vote based on their personal feelings without the benefit of hearing each other’s thoughts or facts; it creates winners and losers, hence dividing the team; the show of hands method may put pressure on people to conform.

Use this form when:

  • There are two distinct options and one or the other must be chosen.
  • Decisions must be made quickly, and a division in the team is acceptable.
  • Consensus has been attempted and can’t be reached.

#6: Consensus Building

Consensus building involves everyone clearly understanding the situation or problem to be decided, analyzing all of the relevant facts together, and then jointly developing solutions that represent the whole team’s best thinking about the optimal decision.  It’s characterized by a lot of listening, healthy conversation and testing of options.  Consensus generates a decision about which everyone says, “I can live with it.”

Strength: It’s a collaborative effort that unites the team; it demands high involvement; it’s systematic, objective, and fact-driven; it builds buy-in and high commitment to the outcome.

Weakness: It’s time-consuming and produces low-quality decisions if done without proper data collection or if members have poor interpersonal skills.

Use this form when:

  • The decisions to be made will impact the entire team and when buy-in and ideas from all members are essential.
  • The importance of the decision being made is worth the time it will take to complete the consensus process properly.

Adapted from:

https://leadingspace.wordpress.com/?s=Decision+Making+Process

Author rikerjoe.  February 28, 2009

Retrieved November 2017

CITIZENSHIP RESOURCES GRADE 8: LIFELONG LEARNING CITIZENS

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

LifeLong Learning citizens continuously strive to understand the dynamics of change and critically seek new information so that they can make reasoned decisions.  They strive to develop a critical understanding of, actively explore and analyze events, and consider the impacts of decisions made at local, national, and global levels.  They are learning that there are different points of view or perspectives to issues and think about how rules and laws have different impacts on different groups of people.   This area of Citizenship study develops skills, attitudes and knowledge so that students can appreciate the power that comes through advocating for specific causes.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

Grade eight students explore the diversity of culture and consider the impact and implications that multiple perspectives bring to Canadian citizenship.  They investigate the meaning of culture, how cultures strive to maintain their beliefs and values, and examine the impact of culture on identity.   Through their investigations, students extend their understanding of Canada’s multi-cultural policy and the implications that accommodation of diverse cultural perspectives brings.  Students continue their investigation of power and authority and further explore the inequities of power and authority that can accompany diversity.  They further develop skills for advocacy and assess the influence of their own worldviews on their personal choices, decisions, and interactions with others.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Students have been learning about democracy, specifically the processes, policies, and structures that sustain a democracy.  While analyzing these concepts, students also examine Canada’s historical relationships, which include the country’s connection to the land, relationships with Aboriginal peoples, and the obligations of treaty responsibilities.  Finally students contemplate the implications of the changing cultural demographics in Canada and those influences on democracy.

By exploring the diverse historical perspectives, in Canada and globally, the Grade Eight student understands the importance of decision making in the democratic process and how individual perspective and personal choice affect the decision making process.  They further extend their investigations to explore the inequities of power that exist in Canada and the outcomes of decisions on a variety of cultures.  Students continue to develop skills for advocacy within a society and understand the importance of the advocacy process.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will be able to:

  • Appreciate and seek to understand diverse cultural perspectives
  • Understand the inequities of power and authority that can accompany diversity
  • Understand the importance of, and develop skills for, advocacy
  • Appreciate that citizenship requires involvement, thought, discussion, and learning about issues that impact others nationally and globally.

Essential Questions

  • How do you determine fairness?
  • What influences your decision-making?
  • How large is your sphere of influence and what can you control?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multi-cultural society?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes / Student Friendly Outcomes

IN8.1

Investigate the meaning of culture and the origins of Canadian cultural diversity.

Indicators:

  • Create an inventory of cultural elements people throughout the world have in common, regardless of where they live (e.g., transmission of values through education, spiritual systems, ways of governing themselves, ways of satisfying needs and wants, family structure, means of self-expression, strategies for recreation and play).
  • Formulate a definition of culture from responses to the question, “What is culture?”(e.g., a group’s beliefs, norms, institutions and communication patterns; a learned way of living shared by a group of people).
  • Examine the extent to which cultural groups are able to retain their cultural identity in Canada, with reference to the elements of culture, including kinship patterns (e.g., how many children are perceived relationship to the aged, family networks, living arrangements, rites of passage), artistic patterns, (e.g., self-expression in visual arts, music, literature, dance, fashion), religious patterns (e.g, tenets of doctrine, worship habits, place of religion in daily life), education patterns (e.g., methods of passing on the culture, who attends school, who is eligible for higher education), recreational and play patterns (e.g., sports, games, traditions, celebrations).
  • Analyze shared characteristics among First Nations, Inuit and Métis cultures in Canada.
  • Investigate why First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities strive to preserve and revitalize their languages, and determine the consequences of the disappearance of cultures and languages.
  • Describe the purposes and results of heritage languages and bilingualism policies in Canada and Saskatchewan.
  • Identify questions and issues of importance to Francophone people in Canada and Saskatchewan (e.g., linguistic and educational rights, changing demographics), and assess the impact of language and education laws on the Francophone community.
  • Analyze the impact of language and education laws on minority groups in Canada.

IN8.2

      Appraise the influence of immigration as a factor in Canadian cultural diversity.

Indicators:

  • Research reasons for diverse peoples choosing Canada as a home (e.g., economic opportunity, economic hardship or war in the country of origin, reunification of family, escape from religious or political oppression).
  • Construct a timeline of the historical immigration patterns in Western Canada.
  • Investigate the evolution of Canada’s immigration policy and assess the impact on historic and contemporary immigration patterns.
  • Assess the fairness of Canada’s current immigration policy by conducting an inquiry to determine if the ancestor of a student or a community member would be admitted to Canada by today’s criteria (recognize that not all students will be descendants of immigrants, such as Indigenous students or those who are recent immigrants).
  • Assess the benefits and challenges of the multicultural policy in Canada.

PA8.1

Contemplate the implications of Canadian citizenship on the life of Canadians. / Look at a variety of aspects of being a Canadian citizen and think of how those affect our lives.

Indicators:

  • Trace the changes in how citizenship has occurred for Canadians over time, including current categories of citizenship.
  • Analyze the contribution of two historical events in the evolution of Canadian citizenship to the nature of citizenship in Canada today (e.g., Elections Act, 1900; ‘bluebird’ nurses in WWl obtain the vote in the 1917 federal election; Canadian women obtain the right to sit in the House of Commons, 1919; the contribution of the famous five; Federal Elections Act, 1920; Saskatchewan Bill of Rights, 1947; Canadian Bill of Rights, 1960; the Charter of Rights and Freedoms in Canada, 1982).
  • Investigate the effects of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms on individuals and groups (e.g., language rights; right to reasonable access to justice in trials; same sex marriage; civil protections).
  • Investigate the provisions of the Indian Act, and its effects on the people of Indigenous ancestry.
  • Compare and evaluate the citizenship processes in place for a person born in Canada and a person entering the country (including the citizenship test and the oath of citizenship).
  • Examine the personal implications of the rights and responsibilities of Canadian citizenship.

DR8.1

Develop an understanding of the significance of land on the evolution of Canadian identity.

Indicators:

  • Examine the influence of the land on the Canadian personality depicted in literary texts, songs, media presentations, visual art and dance, sport and recreation.
  • Analyze the relationship between the traditional Indigenous concept of land (an animate being, the source of life) and the contemporary Western European notion of land (a resource to be owned and exploited) through the centuries.
  • Illustrate on a map various designated lands in Canada (e.g., lands set aside such as reserve lands, settlement ands, heritage sites, homesteads, wildlife refuges, parks, crown land, and trans-boundary areas) and explain such designations.
  • Investigate the importance of the land in the Canadian economy (e.g., agriculture, trapping, hydroelectricity, fishing, mining, forestry, tourism), and speculate about the impact on the identity of Canadians.
  • Investigate the impact of land on the identity of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples.

Part B Learning Plan

Students will:

  • Investigate the meaning of culture and the origins of Canadian cultural diversity (IN8.1)
  • Contemplate the implications of Canadian citizenship on the life of Canadians (PA8.1)
  • Develop an understanding of the significance of land on the evolution of Canadian identity. (DR8.1)
  • Examine the role of power and authority in the application of diverse decision-making processes in a variety of contexts. (PA8.2)
Questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What influences your decision-making?
    • What do you consider when making a decision?
    • What causes you to change your mind?
    • How important is understanding history to current decision-making?
    • What does it take for society to make a change in their decisions?
  • How large is your sphere of influence and what can you control?
    • What influences on the world does your lifestyle create?
    • Is it possible to control the impact of those influences?
  • How do you determine fairness?
    • Whose perspective should be considered when determining what is fair?
    • If opinions are personal perceptions, then is everyone’s opinion right?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place/relationship affect your personal identity?
    • Does your relationship with the environment impact your beliefs and values?
    • Are you a user or protector of the environment?
  • What responsibilities come with affirming a multicultural society?
    • How are multiple perspectives considered in the decision-making process?
    • How is common good reflected?

Vocabulary

  • Biased/unbiased
  • Beliefs
  • Culture
  • Demographics
  • Norms

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry.
This area of Citizenship is explored in three layers as indicated in the graphic.

  • Students consider the impact of Canada’s multi-cultural policy on personal identity and the implications that affirming multiple cultures in a democratic society brings.
  • Students examine the similarities and differences among cultures and how culture is preserved. They examine the policies and procedures in Canada that support multi-culturalism.
  • Finally students consider whether Canadian policies are fair and whose perspective is represented.
Inquiry

Does living in a multi-cultural country give you a multi-cultural identity?

Does Canada’s multi-cultural policy make Canadian citizens multi-cultural?

What responsibility does living in a multi-cultural society place on your identity, on your citizenship? 

Canada is a country that affirms multi-culturalism.

  • How does one’s culture impact an individual?
    • How important is culture to a person’s identity?
    • What impact does culture have on:
      • the foods you eat?
      • the clothes you wear?
      • movies you watch?
      • things you believe?
    • Who is responsible to preserve culture?
  • Is a multicultural society fair for all?
    • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?
    • Do cultures change? Why or why not?
    • What responsibilities come with living in a multi-cultural society?
Teacher Note

Pose the questions to students, surface their thinking, and record their ideas for reflection throughout the inquiry.  It is important to surface their thinking without judgment.  It is in the review and reflection on their thinking that students become aware of how their thinking has changed and what information or new knowledge led to that change.

Developing a class cultural profile

Culture can also be the learned and accepted behaviour(s) of a group of people living together.

Gain an understanding of the class’s involvement in various groups or organizations and their thoughts on a number of the following items.

Create an inventory of things that students have in common with one another.  Look for themes. Have students develop summary statements about the culture of the classroom, identify norms, values, beliefs.

What does the word culture mean to the students?  How important is culture to them?

Have students formulate a definition of culture.   Use the Frayer model to develop students’ understanding.  See appendix.

Identify:

  • Institutions – What groups or clubs do students belong to?
  • Religion – What religions exist in the class? What spiritual beliefs do students have?
  • Responsibilities – What jobs, responsibilities do students have?
  • Restrictions – What family rules do students have to follow?
  • Use of technology – How do students communicate with one another? e. technology used
  • Entertainment
    • Music
    • Movies
    • Books
    • Games
    • Strategies for recreation and play
    • Other?
  • Group’s values
    • What do they think is important in their lives?
      • treatment of others
      • importance of giving back to the community
      • importance of Education
      • other?
    • Where did they get the idea that these things are important?
  • Group’s beliefs about particular issues
    • e. being a vegan, smoking, clothes they wear
    • value of education
    • Other?

Students may choose to survey their family members to gain their perspectives on the classroom culture.

Students extend their investigation into the relationship between culture and personal identity by examining the impact of familial heritage and culture.

Things that people share create a common culture.

  • What does the culture of the classroom say about the ways in which this group behaves?

Our behaviours tell a story about what we believe.

  • What does this class believe?
  • How does this group govern itself/get along?
  • What expectations/pre-suppositions does it lead to?
  • What would their family say about the classroom culture? Support it? Question it?
  • How different is this culture from their family culture?
  • What impact does their past history/culture have on what they believe?
  • What impact does their environment have on their thinking?

Identify the cultures in the classroom, community.  Canada is special because it has cultures Indigenous to this country only, so be sure to include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis cultures.   Have students choose a particular culture and examine the:

Elements of culture, including:

  • Kinship patterns
    • How are children perceived?
    • What is the relationship to the aged?
    • What are the family networks?
      • Areas of support?
      • Living arrangements?
      • Rites of passage?
    • Religious/Spiritual patterns
      • Tenets/rules of doctrine/religion
      • Worship habits
      • Place/Importance of religion in daily life
    • Education patterns
      • methods of passing on, preserving the culture
      • who attends school
      • who is eligible for higher education
    • Recreational, play, and celebratory patterns
      • sports, games
      • traditions, celebrations
    • Artistic patterns
      • self-expression in visual art, music, literature, dance, fashion

Prepare summary statements that indicate what the culture of that group says about how that culture might behave, what it believes in/values.

What themes are emerging?

See the graphic organizer in the appendix to support student research.
Using maps, connect cultures to country of origin as an additional frame of reference for students.

Look for themes – Develop summary statements.

  • What are the things in common among the researched cultures? What are the differences?
  • What do the behaviours of the cultures tell about what the culture believes?
  • How do the cultures impact the behaviours of the students in the class? (Check against the differences list developed with the class cultural profile.)

Connect with resident experts

  • Invite guests from the community to visit the class representing their unique culture, language and heritage.
  • Invite a First Nation, Métis or Inuit family to your class for a meal. Learn of their customs through a firsthand visit.
  • Attend a cultural event of a culture other than yours. Note the similarities and differences between your own culture and that you are visiting
  • Create a list of signs of culture that students see in their daily lives. Discuss how these cultural signs make a difference in our communities.
Resident Experts

Consider the people in the community who could come into the classroom or agree to be interviewed by students to share their expertise and offer a real-life perspective.

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.
Revisit the questions proposed at the start of the inquiry.  What thinking has remained the same?  How has student thinking changed?  What are the reasons for the changes?

How does one’s culture impact an individual? 

  • How important is culture to a person’s identity?
  • What impact does culture have on the choices a person makes?

What role does the language of a culture play? 

  • How many of the students in the class, speak another language?
  • Where did they learn the language?
  • How important is it to learn another language?

What are the effects of living in a multi-cultural society on a person’s identity? 

  • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?
  • Do cultures change as a result of contact with one another? Why or why not?

How does Canada’s multi-cultural policy impact the development of Canadian citizens?

  • Who is responsible to preserve culture?
  • What are the responsibilities that come with affirming a multi-cultural society?
  • How are multiple perspectives considered in the decision-making process?
This portion of the inquiry has students considering the impact of language on a culture.  Students examine Canada’s policies, processes, and programs that support cultures in maintaining their cultural identity and language. 
Canada is a country committed to multi-culturalism.

“Canadian multiculturalism is fundamental to our belief that all citizens are equal. Multiculturalism ensures that all citizens can keep their identities, can take pride in their ancestry and have a sense of belonging. Acceptance gives Canadians a feeling of security and self-confidence, making them more open to, and accepting of, diverse cultures. The Canadian experience has shown that multiculturalism encourages racial and ethnic harmony and cross-cultural understanding.”

This text was retrieved from https://web.archive.org/web/20130622051907/http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/citizenship.asp using the Internet Wayback Archive Machine.  This text appeared on the Government of Canada webpage http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/citizenship.asp June 22, 2013.  The reproduction of this text has not been produced in affiliation with, or with the endorsement of, the Government of Canada.

  • What does this statement mean to students?
    • What does it show that Canadians value?
    • What does it say that Canadians believe?
    • How true do students think this statement is?
  • What has Canada done to support diversity of culture?
  • What has Canada done to support language?
Have students Think about… Talk about… and research the following:

  • What is the relationship between language and the preservation of culture?
    • What processes are in place in Canada to ensure that people can maintain their culture?
    • What processes are in place in Canada to ensure that cultures can maintain their language?
    • How do cultures retain their cultural identity and language in Canada?
    • Are all cultures in Canada treated the same?
Strategies to develop and explore inquiries include:

  • Surfacing student initial thinking, posting their thoughts, and then reflecting on thinking to note how thinking has changed and identify what has caused the changes.
  • Jig-saw strategy approach: Students, individually or in groups, explore similar questions, present their findings to the group. The teacher helps to note similarities, differences, themes.  Students are encouraged to develop summary statements to clarify their thinking and describe new learning.
  • Reflect on initial thinking to note how thinking has changed. What is the evidence to support the new learning? 
Canadian Heritage Language and Bilingualism Policies

  • Describe the purposes of the policies in Canada and Saskatchewan
  • What are the results of the policies?
  • Who is the Minister in charge of heritage and bilingualism? What are the Minister’s responsibilities?

Develop a class summary statement

  • What has been the impact of language and education laws on minority groups in Canada?

Indian Act

  • What is the Indian Act?
  • Why was it created?
  • What are the terms of the Indian Act?
  • What changes were made to the Indian Act and why?

Develop a class summary statement

  • What have been the effects of the Indian Act on people of Aboriginal ancestry?
  • What have been the effects on the Indigenous cultures?
  • What have been the effects of the Indian Act on non-indigenous cultures?

Canadian Indigenous Languages

  • What are the demographics of Indigenous peoples?
  • What is the status of Indigenous languages in Canada?
  • What are the linguistic and educational rights of Indigenous people?
  • What have Indigenous communities done to preserve and revitalize their languages?
  • What are the consequences of the disappearance of cultures and languages?
  • Why is the preservation of Indigenous languages important?

French and Francophone Languages

  • What is the status of Francophone language in Canada?
  • What are the linguistic and educational rights of the Francophone?
  • What are the demographics of people who speak French in Saskatchewan? In Canada?
  • What have the Francophone done to preserve their language?

Have students reflect again on their initial thinking to the Inquiry questions.

  • Does living in a multicultural country give you a multi-cultural identity?
  • Does Canada’s multicultural policy make Canadian citizens multicultural?
  • What responsibilities does living in a multicultural society place on your identity? On your citizenship?
  • What are the issues of importance to Francophone people in Saskatchewan? In Canada?
  • Why is the preservation of the French language important?

Develop Class Summary statements

  • What are the similarities between the importance and preservation of Indigenous and Francophone languages?
  • What are the commonalities and differences in the policies to protect each language?
  • What accounts for the differences?

After student groups have presented their findings

  • What processes are in place in Canada to ensure that people can maintain their culture?
  • What processes are in place in Canada to ensure that cultures can maintain their language?
  • Are all cultures in Canada treated the same?
  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the benefits and challenges of Canada’s multicultural policy?
  • What is the impact of Canada’s multi-cultural policy on the development of Canadian citizens?
  • What improvements would you suggest?
Canada has many diverse cultures due to immigration of people from other countries.  In this inquiry students research the influence of immigration on Canadian identity.

Students are encouraged to use the jig-saw research method to find information on specific points below, compile their findings, and then discuss and compare to examine their thinking on issues raised in the overarching essential questions.

Inquiry

What is the impact of immigration on Canadian multiculturalism? 

How has immigration contributed to Canadian cultural diversity?

Why do people come to Canada?

Using the list of different cultures within the classroom and community as a frame of reference, have students:

Identify reasons why some of the people chose to come to Canada

  • economic opportunity
  • economic hardship or war in the country of origin
  • reunification of family
  • escape from religious or political oppression
  • other

Chart or graph the results.

Canada’s immigration policy has changed over the years.  What are the effects of Canada’s immigration policy on immigration patterns?

  • Investigate and identify the changes in Canada’s immigration policy.
  • Construct a timeline and map the historical immigration patterns in Western Canada.
  • Assess the impact of historic and contemporary immigration patterns.
  • Consider whether ancestors of students in the classroom or community members would be admitted to Canada given today’s criteria.
Throughout this study, it is critical that teachers help students to step back to see the big picture. 

  • What themes are emerging?
  • What are the similarities and differences?
  • Why do students think this is so?

The independence level of the class, will determine how much teacher direction is required to do this.

Consider opportunities to connect with new immigrants who have been studying for their citizenship exams.  What is their perspective on Canada’s immigration policy?

Attend a citizenship ceremony.

Research the citizenship exam.

As a class Think about… Talk about…

  • What themes are emerging in each of the students’ research regarding:
    • Why people come to Canada
    • The impact of those immigrants to Canada
  • What would students say is Canada’s view of immigration? Give supporting evidence.
  • How would students grade the fairness of Canada’s current immigration policy? What changes would they suggest?
  • What might be a different perspective i.e. First Nations and Métis, Immigrant regarding Canada’s immigration policy? Give evidence to support your thinking.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes. Vocabulary is introduced and noted here.  This section frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
This final inquiry asks students to examine the relationship that Canadians have to the land.  Students will compare Aboriginal worldviews with non-Aboriginal worldviews regarding the use of the land to determine how the relationship with the land impacts the Canadian identity.
Inquiry

How does the environment and the significance of the land impact Canadian identity/Canadian citizenship? 

What does the way land is used in Canada say about our beliefs?

How does the natural environment affect the development of society?

  • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place affect how your:
    • Identity develops?
    • Cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • Does the environment impact your beliefs and values?
  • Are you a user or protector of the environment?
  • Are Canadians users or protectors of the environment:
    • Nationally?
    • Globally?
Think about… Talk about… Post students’ thinking for later reflection.

Have students choose various areas to research according to their interests.

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations. Teachers work with students to clarify understandings.
Jigsaw Research and Study Process

Divide class into groups and have each group choose a particular area of study.  Each group must find out the information in the questions posed.  Encourage students to present information learned in a variety of modes including speaking, writing, drama, multimedia, or other modes so that all students have an entrance point for demonstrating their learning and understanding.

Historical References to Land

  • What evidence is there that the land/environment has impacted the Canadian identity? Have students research the following to find evidence of a connection between the land and:
    • literary texts,
    • music,
    • media presentations,
    • visual art and dance,
    • sport and recreation.
After presentations have class Think about… Talk about…

What are students noticing? What themes are arising?

Have the class develop a summary statement indicating the relationship to the land and the impact on the Canadian identity.

Compare and Contrast Worldviews with Respect to Land

  • Analyze the relationship between the:
    • traditional Indigenous concepts of land (an animate being; the source of life; relationship of interdependence with the land) and
    • contemporary Western European notion of land (a resource to be owned and exploited, land possession connects to status and wealth, resources are used for economic benefit) through the centuries.
  • Investigate the impact of land on the identity of First Nations, Métis, and Inuit people.
  • How are differing worldviews respecting use of land demonstrated? (Find newspaper articles. Use of forestry lands, pipeline development that highlight differences for students)

After presentations have class think about… talk about…

What are students noticing? What themes are arising?

Understanding Canadian land designations

Canada has a number of policies, provincial and federal that identifies how land is to be used.   Students will be exploring some of these designations to understand the parameters and implications of the designation.

  • Identify rules and restrictions and explain the reasons for such restrictions on various designated lands in Canada
    • settlement lands, heritage sites, homesteads
    • lands set aside for Indigenous peoples such as reserve lands, Treaty lands
    • lands set aside for Métis people through the Scrip program, Scrip lands
    • wildlife refuges, parks, crown land
  • What do these designations say about Canadian beliefs about the land? How many different belief systems can students identify?

After presentations have class think about… talk about…

What are students noticing? What themes are arising?

Land and the Canadian Economy

Canada uses the land in many different ways to contribute to the economy.

  • How does the use of the land in the following industries contribute to the Canadian economy?
    • agriculture
    • trapping
    • hydroelectricity
    • fishing
    • mining
    • forestry
    • tourism
  • Identify on a map the geographic areas of the industry
  • Identify the economic success of the industry
After presentations have class Think about… Talk about…

What are students noticing? What themes are arising?

What does the use of the land say about the impact of land on the identity of Canadians?

How does the natural environment affect the development of society?

  • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place/relationship affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • Does the environment impact your beliefs and values?
  • Are you a user or protector of the environment?
  • Are Canadians users or protectors of the environment?

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.

Link to the Essential Questions that you have used and have students indicate how they will demonstrate their understanding of the concepts.

Assessment of the learning will vary but should allow students to demonstrate their learning and understanding in a variety of ways.

Inquiry

Does living in a multicultural country give you a multi-cultural identity?

Does Canada’s multicultural policy make Canadian citizens multi-cultural?

What responsibilities does living in a multicultural society place on your identity, on your citizenship? 

  • Revisit the definition of culture created at the beginning of the inquiry. Does the definition still hold true for students?  Make changes to the definition and tell why your thinking has changed.
  • Is a multicultural society fair for all?
    • How important is culture to a person’s identity?
    • What are the impacts of many cultures living together?
    • Who is responsible to preserve culture?
    • Do cultures change? Why or why not?
  • Assess the benefits and challenges of Canada’s multicultural policy. Give examples.  What changes would you make and why? What is the impact of Canada’s multicultural policy on the development of the Canadian citizen?
  • What is the relationship between language and the preservation of culture?

Inquiry

What is the impact of immigration on the development of Canadian culture? 

How has immigration contributed to Canadian cultural diversity?

  • Are Canada’s multicultural policies effective?
  • Is a multicultural society fair for all?
  • Are all cultures treated the same?
  • What is required for society to change?

Inquiry

How does the environment and the significance of the land impact Canadian identity/ Canadian citizenship? 

What does the way land is used in Canada say about our beliefs?

How does the natural environment affect the development of society?

  • How does the impact of the natural environment affect the development of society/Canadian society?
    • What is the impact of your environment and relationship with the land on your personal beliefs?
    • Can your environment affect your beliefs and values?
    • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place/relationship affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal. A specific journal should be set aside for the reflections on being a Canadian citizen. Art may be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. Students may also consider a video journal to respond to the prompts. Journal entries reflect changes in student’s thinking as they explore their citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own. Students can also respond to any of the essential questions.

Students are encouraged to respond using a variety of genres.

  • Our Canadian society is impacted by a multi-cultural society in many ways. Some of the most important impacts are… because…
  • Something I have learned about living in a multi-cultural society is…
  • My language is important to me because….
  • My heritage is with me always. I know this because….
  • Multiculturalism has affected me…
  • My relationship with/to the environment is…

Part C

Inquiry Resources

All websites accessed November 2017.

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR8: Analyze the impact of treaty on the Métis people.
  • SI8: Assess the impact residential schools have on First Nations communities.
  • HC8: Examine how Provincial, Territorial, and Aboriginal governments, who have not negotiated treaty, work to respect each other’s interests.
  • TPP8: Assess whether the terms of treaty have been honoured and to what extent the treaty obligations have been fulfilled.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • 1 Analyze and establish effective strategies of support for purposes of helping others increase health-enhancing behaviours.
  • 2 Analyze how personal prejudices/biases, and habits of mind shape assumptions about family identities, structures, roles, and responsibilities.
  • 3 Investigate and analyze the impact of in/formal supports and services (including testing/diagnostic services) available to individuals, families, and communities infected with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases (including HIV and Hepatitis C).
  • 4 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of violence (including but not limited to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, spiritual abuse, and neglect) on the well-being of and the supports needed for self, family, and community.
  • 5 Assess how body image satisfaction/dissatisfaction and over-reliance on appearance as a source of identity and self-esteem affects the quality of life of self and family.
  • 6 Examine and assess the concept of sustainability from many perspectives, and develop an understanding of its implications for the well-being of self, others, and the environment.
  • 7 Assess the social, cultural, and environmental influences on and supports for sexual health knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and decisions.

Decision Making

  • 9 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges, and establish “support others” personal goal statements, related to family roles and responsibilities, non-curable infections/diseases, violence and abuse, body image, sustainability, and sexual health.

Science

Earth and Space Science: Water Systems on Earth (WS)

  • 1 Analyze the impact of natural and human-induced changes to the characteristics and distribution of water in local, regional, and national ecosystems. [CP,DM]
  • 2 Examine how wind, water, and ice have shaped and continue to shape the Canadian landscape. [DM, SI]
  • 3 Analyze natural factors and human practices that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and fresh water environments. [CP, DM, SI]

Further Investigation Suggestions

  • Write a letter to your member of parliament on an issue that concerns you. Follow the response that you receive until your concerns are addressed.
  • Have students interview a person with a culture, language or heritage different than their own. Write a reflection on the effects of having diverse cultures in our society.
  • Find newspaper articles on the use of forestry lands, pipeline development that highlight differences in worldview and use of land for students.
  • Investigate local organizations that support immigrants.
  • Investigate the roles and responsibilities of the Office of the Treaty Commission

Glossary

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Bias

A preference for one thing over another, especially an unfair one.

A partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation.

Some biases are completely innocent: “I have a bias toward French foods.” But most often, bias is used to describe unfair prejudices: “The authorities investigated a case involving bias against Latinos.” It is also a verb meaning “to show prejudice for or against,” as in “They claimed the tests were biased against women.” (In British English, it takes an extra S in the forms biassed and biassing.) The word goes back at least to Old Provençal, a former language of southern France, in association with the sport of lawn bowling, where it referred to the tendency of a ball to roll in one direction or the other.

Belief

Any cognitive content held as true.

A vague idea in which some confidence is placed.

A belief is an idea one accepts as being true or real. As a child, you probably had a strong belief that Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny really did exist.

The noun belief replaced the Old English word geleafa, meaning “belief, faith,” in the late 12th century. A belief is an idea one usually holds with conviction and importance. In a religious context, the Ancient Greeks held the belief that many gods existed, controlling their fate, while Christianity began with the belief that only one God exists. You can also have belief in yourself in the face of a challenge.

Culture

All the knowledge and values shared by a society.

The attitudes and behaviour that are characteristic of particular social group or organization.

A particular society at a particular time and place.

A culture is a specific group of people during a particular time — like the hippie culture of the 1960’s. Culture can also imply exposure to the arts. Visit a museum if you are in need of a dose of culture.

A useful thing to remember about culture is that it is closely related to cultivate, whose root meaning is “to till the soil.” Even in Latin, the source language, cultura was used metaphorically (Cicero said philosophy was cultura animi, the “cultivation of the soul”), and in English it moved from the agricultural sense to training, development of language and literature, mental development through education, and finally the ideas, customs, and intellectual and artistic conditions of a society or group.

Demographic

A statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income, etc.).

Of or relating to demography.

A demographic can consist of people who are in the same age group, such as 18-to-29-year-olds, or ethnic group, such as African-Americans.

Demographic is a word companies use when they’re trying to sell their products to a particular group of consumers.  Advertising agencies like to schedule their commercials in television shows that appeal to the 18-49 demographic, because this segment of the population has a lot of spending power.

Norm

A standard or model or pattern regarded as typical.

A statistic describing the location of a distribution.

A statistical average is called the norm. If you live in a town made up mostly of farmers but your trade is basket weaving, then you’re outside the norm.

The noun norm is from the Latin word norma, which was a carpenter’s square or pattern used in construction to make regular corners. Now we use norm for anything that sets a standard. You can score within the norm on a standardized test, score above the norm on an IQ test, or fall below the norm in acceptable standards of dress if you wear a halter top and cut-off jeans to a formal ball.

Appendix

Culture Research                                  Name(s): ____________________________

 

Chosen Culture: _______________________

 

Research and provide information about your culture under the following headings.

Country of origin:

 

Kinship patterns: (How are children perceived? What is the relationship to the aged?

What are the family networks? Areas of support? Living arrangements? Rites of passage?)

  

Religious/Spiritual patterns:  (Tenets/rules of doctrine/religion, Worship habits, Place/Importance of religion in daily life)

 

 

Education patterns:  (methods of passing on/preserving the culture, who attends school, who is eligible for higher education)

 

 

 

Recreational/Play: (sports, games, etc)

 

 

 

Celebratory patterns: (traditions, celebrations)

 

 

Artistic patterns: (self-expression in visual art, music, literature, dance, fashion)

 

 

 

Other Interesting Facts: (Include any other information that makes your culture)

 

 

Other places where this culture is fairly dominant:

CITIZENSHIP STUDIES GRADE 8: CITIZENS CONNECTED TO SELF, COMMUNITY AND PLACE

Part A

Broad Area of Citizenship

Citizens with a Strong Sense of Self, Community and Place examine and investigate their connectedness to community, the natural environment and consider their place as a global citizen.  They do this by reflecting upon the choices they make and the impact of those choices on self and others and their community both near and far.  Being a member of any community brings with it certain rights; however, it also brings with it certain responsibilities to protect those rights and privileges.  Students are learning to value their connection as individuals and members of a community to its place and reflect upon their actions in maintaining and nurturing the relationships between these three components of their environment.

This area of citizenship focuses on the student using critical thinking skills in order to better understand, the relationship between geography, resources, culture and historical events.

Overview and Desired Results of Citizenship Study

A person’s “sense of place” develops through experience and knowledge of the history; geography and geology of an area; the legends of a place; and, a sense of the land and its history after living there for a time. Developing a sense of place helps students identify with their region and with each other.  A strong sense of place can lead to more sensitive stewardship of our cultural history and natural environment.

These inquires provide opportunities for students to expand their own sense of identity with respect to their footprint on the world.  Students explore the impact of Canada’s market economy and consider the implications of their personal consumer choices.  As they learn about the impact they are making in the world through their lifestyle choices, students develop an awareness and understanding of how they are contributing to environmental issues at a local, regional, national and global levels. Finally, students critique Canada’s approaches to environmental stewardship and sustainability.

Enduring Understandings of Citizenship Study

Citizens consider their identity within Canada and globally.

Students will understand that:

  • History and current events are understood through diverse historical perspectives.
  • Democracy requires discussion and consideration of alternate points of view in order to find a balance between individual perspectives.
  • Citizens value the needs of the collective common good and consider how their actions impact the collective well-being.
  • Canadian multi-cultural policies challenge citizenship tenets and require consideration of multiple perspectives.
  • Canada’s history includes First Nations, Métis, and Inuit governance and perspectives and each have contributed to Canadian identity.
  • Decision-making is a complex process with far-reaching impacts.
  • Engaged citizens strive to be knowledgeable, uphold their rights, and act on their responsibilities.

Students examine their actions to consider the long-term effects on the physical and social environment of which they are a part.  They will explore the value of and think about what is required to achieve a collective common good.

  • Enduring understandings are the big ideas that stimulate thinking, guide the inquiry and are linked to outcomes.
  • Essential questions point to the “big ideas” in the inquiry and should be considered and reconsidered as the inquiry progresses.
  • Answers to these questions form the evidence of learning at the end of study.

Knowledge and Skill Development

Students will be able to:

  • Expand their sense of identity with respect to local, regional, national, and global diversities.
  • Exhibit an awareness and understanding of natural environmental issues on a local, regional, national, and global level.
  • Model being active and responsible citizens.

Students will continue to develop skills for:

  • Examining issues from a variety of perspectives.
  • Looking for alternate points of view.

Students will use their independent learning to:

  • Refine their skills for treating self and others with respect.
  • Demonstrate empathy in social situations.
  • Continually reassess where they belong (changing contexts/roles and expectations) i.e. school, family, community.
  • Reflect upon the impact of their choices.

Essential Questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to sustain and address common good?
  • What is the appropriate citizenship response to the marginalization witnessed daily?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
  • How much control do you have over the impact of your decisions/actions?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the community’s (global) needs?
  • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
Essential Questions are open-ended questions that are continually revisited, encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study, form the evidence of understanding and frame the assessment at the end of the study.

Curriculum Outcomes and Indicators

Student friendly outcomes should be posted throughout the inquiry and continually referenced so the goals of the learning are clearly available to students.

Sask. Curriculum Outcomes / Student Friendly Outcomes

RW8.1

Analyze the social and environmental consequences of living in the Canadian mixed market economy based on consumerism.

Indicators:

  • Investigate the goods and services produced in the local economy and the consumers of those goods and services (e.g., hospitals, hairdressers, manufacturers, farmers, exporters).
  • Categorize the producers of goods and services in the local economy as belonging to the public or private sector, and define the differences of the two groupings.
  • Identify the purpose and characteristics of: Private enterprise and public enterprise.
  • Represent the characteristics of a mixed market economy including the roles of the producer, consumer and government.
  • Illustrate the elements of a mixed market economy present in the lives of students.
  • Appraise the role of advertising in the mixed market economy.
  • Determine the positive and negative social and environmental consequences for family, school and community in the Canadian mixed market economy.
  • Recognize the impact of living in situations in which assets are collectively or communally owned (e.g., First Nations, Hutterite Colonies).

RW8.2

Assess the implications of the personal consumer choices. / Examine and review personal consumer choices.

Indicators:

  • Determine the effects on the local community of the purchasing patterns of its members (e.g., the origins of products used in daily life).
  • Create a catalogue of locally-produced products and of fair-trade products available in local businesses.
  • Assess the advantages and disadvantages of buying locally, buying fair-trade products and buying mass-produced products. Include the state of factories in places like Bangladesh, and discuss a Canadian’s responsibility to ensure a safe working place for all.
  • Illustrate the effects of excessive consumption in personal, community and national contexts.
  • Propose a definition of responsible consumerism, and publish a list of strategic actions leading to responsible consumerism.
  • Represent a personal change related to responsible consumption integrated into personal life.

RW8.3

Critique the approaches of Canada and Canadians to environmental stewardship and sustainability. / Research and critically review the stand of Canadian governments toward environmental sustainability over the years.

Indicators:

  • Represent on a timeline the evolution of Canadian policy on global environmental issues, including historical First Nations approaches to environmental stewardship.
  • Outline the issues involved in finding solutions to an environmental challenge (e.g., sharing water resources with the US, logging in Canadian forests, expansion of nuclear energy, development of tar sands).
  • Tell the story of changes made in his or her behavior to protect the environment (e.g., walking, purchasing locally-produced or seasonal products, recycling; composting; disposing responsibility of garbage; using less paper; using less plastic; factoring packaging into purchases).

Part B Learning Plan

In this inquiry students will:

  • Analyze the consequences of a consumerism lifestyle with specific consideration of the social and environmental consequences of their personal consumer choices (RW8.1, 8.2)
  • Critique the approaches of Canadians to environmental stewardship and sustainability. (RW8.3)

Teacher Note

Guiding questions are suggested to support exploration of the essential questions.  Teachers are encouraged to use the questions that support their classroom work and make wording changes as required.  Guiding questions are more closely related to the inquiry.

Essential questions are posted and discussed with students at the start of the exploration of study. These open-ended questions are continually revisited; encompass concepts that students will explore throughout the unit of study; form the evidence of understanding; and, frame the assessment at the end of the unit of study. Guiding questions are posed to support student thinking as they explore the answers to the larger overarching questions.

Teachers may want to consider putting the questions into a “Before, During, After” chart to note the changes in students’ thinking as a result of the inquiries.

Questions to Guide Inquiry

Essential Questions: Guiding Questions

  • What is government’s responsibility to sustain and address common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community?
  • What is the relationship between the natural environment and the development of society?
    • What impact does your environment and your relationship with the land have on the development of your personal beliefs and values?
    • Does your environment and where you live/sense of place affect how your cultural and social behaviours develop?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs? / What are the impacts of supporting your lifestyle on your local community and the global community?
    • How much control do you have over the impact of your actions/decisions?
    • As a global citizen, what are your responsibilities regarding the impacts of your lifestyle as a global citizen?
  • What role does empathy play in citizenship?
    • What is the power and responsibility of the individual to make a difference in the world?

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.

There are three inquiries in this area of citizenship.  In this inquiry students will critically review the consequences of living in a mixed market economy.  They begin by tracking their purchases to become aware of the impacts that their choices are having on their environment.  They will also begin to understand the intricacies of a market economy.  Tracking purchases is critical to this inquiry as it provides actual data for student reflection. Teachers using this inquiry will want to have students begin tracking at least a month in advance. 

  • What is the appropriate Citizenship response to the marginalization we witness daily?
    • How do we contribute to marginalization?

Inquiry

What are the Social and Environmental consequences of supporting my lifestyle through a mixed market economy?

What are the implications of my personal consumer choices?

Who and what do my choices impact?

  • How would students define a mixed market economy? What does this term mean to them?

Chart student answers for later reflection and revision.

  • Keep a journal of recent purchases by students and their families in the last week and month. (e.g., snacks, drinks, movies, clothing, hobbies).  At the end of each week, discuss the actual costs of the articles purchased.  (see appendix for graphic organizer)
    • Categorize those purchases (i.e. food/necessities, luxuries, services, etc.)
    • Identify the source of those purchases/materials – where they were produced, manufactured, etc. and who produced them – categorize into:
      • local, national, foreign produced (map countries that are providing products)
      • private – publically produced
      • fair trade
    • Identify where products are advertised.

What are students noticing?  What themes are surfacing?  Why do students think this is so?

DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the inquiry.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities.  This forms the  “They do” section of the inquiry where students are finding answers to the overarching questions and then searching for themes and patterns as possible explanations.
Map the countries that are providing goods.  Students studied Pacific Rim countries in Grade 7 so should have some understanding of the issues facing workers in those countries.
Have students log on to http://www.myfootprint.org/ to score their own/family eco footprint. This may need to be done at home with family input.

  • Identify positive and negative aspects of consumerism and market economy.

Goods and Services Exploration – (local economy, provincial economy, beyond) (see appendix for graphic organizer)

Understanding the relationships in a mixed market economy

Using the monthly purchases of the group/class, identify and chart:

  • What goods are being purchased in the local economy? Provincial economy? Beyond?
  • Who are the producers of goods in the local economy? Provincial economy? Beyond?
  • What are the services purchased in the local economy?
  • Who are the providers of the services?
    • Categorize services as provided by the public or private sector
      • define the differences and purposes of the two groupings
      • identify the characteristics of each sector
    • Who are the consumers of / market for the services?
    • Who are the consumers of the services? (market)(e.g., hospitals, hairdressers, manufacturers, farmers, exporters).
    • Develop a summary statement identifying the profile of the local community.
      • What are the consumer choices?
      • Who are the users of the goods?- services?
      • Who are the providers?
      • Use maps to indicate the areas where the goods originate.
    • What themes are emerging?
    • Create a catalogue of locally-produced products and fair-trade products available in local businesses. – Chamber of Commerce link
      http://www.saskchamber.com/

Continue to connect to the overarching, essential questions.

  • Who and what are student consumer choices effecting?
  • Identify the impacts positive and negative. (Chart for later reflection)
  • What are students thinking about their impacts?
  • What are the impacts of supporting students’ lifestyle on the local community and the global community?
  • What responsibility do students have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?

Reflect on the student definition of mixed market economy.  What changes would students make?

  • What roles do the following play in the mixed market economy:
    • producer
    • consumer
    • government
  • What role does advertising play in a mixed market economy?
  • Go back to the survey, identify where the:
    • Purchased goods are advertised. How did students learn about them?
    • Identify where the services are advertised. How did students learn about them?
    • How prevalent was the advertising?

Go back to the student spending survey.  Examine the categories of consumption.

Essential Questions

  • Who and what are student consumer choices effecting?
  • What are the impacts of supporting students’ lifestyle on the local community and the global community?
  • What responsibility do students have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
  • What are the Social and Environmental consequences of supporting my lifestyle through a mixed market economy?
  • Where was the highest spending?
  • What is the relationship between advertising/marketing and purchasing?
  • What are students noticing? What themes are emerging?  
  • Why is this information important to know?

Have students create a graphic or representation that demonstrates their understandings of the various parts of the mixed market economy and the inter-relationships between consumer, producer, government, and marketing/advertising.

This website has several shorter video options that cause students to think about multiple effects of consumerism.  Teachers are invited to choose those that are best for their classroom culture.

Look again at the positive and negative effects of consumerism.  What changes would students make to their consumer choices?  Connect back to the essential questions.  Has student thinking changed?  Why?  What questions are surfacing for students?

Resident Experts

Consider the people in the community who could come into the classroom or agree to be interviewed by students to share their expertise and offer a real-life perspective.

Arrange a class visit from a resource based professional to learn about …

This inquiry may raise sensitive issues about spending, cost of living, cost of consumer choices, and multiple social issues. As such, it may highlight socio-economic differences in the class.  The movie, The High Cost of Low Cost Prices, features the practices of the American company Wal-Mart but it could easily reflect practices of other large companies.  During the market survey it is quite likely that students and families in the class shopped at Wal-mart. Teachers must be sensitive to the variety of socio-economic levels in the class and work to ensure that students are aware of the impact of their choices but not made to feel badly because of economic realities. 

The inquiry provides opportunities for students to practice critical listening and viewing, and connect to Health outcomes regarding advertising and mixed messages. 

Inquiry

What are the advantages and disadvantages of:

The movie is 1.5 hours long; too long for most gr. 8 students to absorb and too long for most timetables.  It is suggested that teachers divide the movie viewing into four sections to deal with worker issues, community issues, global issues, and community response. As with all viewing situations, teachers are reminded to stop throughout the viewing to allow students to think about… talk about… what they are seeing.  A graphic organizer has been provided as a means for students to record their viewing thoughts.

  • What are some of the issues students are finding?
  • What are the messages about the issues?
  • What are students noticing:
    • about the messages?
    • about the issues?
    • about the resolution of the issues?
  • Why do people choose to shop at Wal-Mart – convenience, selection, price, etc.
  • What are students thinking about the practices of the company?
  • What other companies follow similar practices?
  • What questions are students raising?
  • Why is it important to know this information?

Consider the community responses to keep Wal-Mart out of particular communities.

  • What kinds of advocacy skills did you observe?
  • How do advocacy practices in the United States compare with Canada? (studied in Engaged Citizens)
  • Think about the human rights issues that were raised in the documentary, i.e. discrimination against women and people of colour. How could those issues be addressed in Canada?

Exploring the Bangladesh Rana Plaza factory collapse – see resources list for video links

  • How did your consumerism behaviours contribute to the situation in Bangladesh?
  • How responsible is this type of consumerism? How sustainable is it?
  • What responsibility do you have as a Canadian citizen to address the consequences of your consumer choices?
  • What has been the variety of responses to the collapse?
    • personal
    • corporate
    • national/federal
  • Identify the effects of excessive consumption in:
    • personal
    • community
    • national context.
  • What are the positive and negative social and environmental consequences in the Canadian mixed market economy for:
    • family
    • school
    • community

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
Alternatives to the mixed market economy

Some communities and cultures choose to share resources and assets.

  • Research the principles of collectively or communally owned assets.
  • Identify the benefits of collective and community owned assets for:
    • First Nations
    • Hutterite Colonies
  • What is the impact of this type of ownership:
    • On the local economy?
    • On the global economy?
  • Why do students suppose that collective or community owned assets remain as marginal choices by consumers?
These sets of inquiries ask students to think about the impact of their lifestyle choices.  There are several layers to the inquiry.  Teachers are encouraged to post student thinking throughout the inquiries and provide opportunities for students to go back and reflect on their original thinking and look for changes in their ideas.
What are the impacts of your consumer choices? – Consumerism (Canada’s mixed market economy)?

How responsible is this type of consumerism?  How sustainable is it?

How could you increase the responsibility and sustainability of your practices?

  • Propose a definition of responsible consumerism
    • What choices would one have to make in order to become a more responsible consumer?
    • Identify a list of strategic actions leading to responsible consumerism.
  • What is government’s responsibility to address common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community?
  • What is the appropriate Citizenship response to the marginalization we witness daily?
    • How do our consumer choices contribute to marginalization?
    • How do we guard against indifference to the marginalization in the world?
  • Identify a personal change related to responsible consumption that you could integrate into your personal life.

CONNECT TO TOPIC AND SURFACE STUDENTS’ THINKING ABOUT …

This section introduces the concepts and helps teachers gain an understanding of the current thinking of the class.  Present essential questions and allow students to think about and talk about.  Student answers will give teachers a baseline or beginning understanding of the amount of specific and incidental teaching required to explore these outcomes.  Vocabulary should be noted here.  Record students’ current thinking for reflection throughout inquiry. This section also frames the “We do” portion of the lesson where teachers guide the initial structure of the inquiry.
Students will not likely be able to answer these questions before the inquiry but it is important to have them begin to think about these issues as they do their reading and researching.
Inquiry

What is Canada’s response to environmental stewardship? 

How effective are Canadian environmental policies and efforts?

Link to essential questions…

  • What is government’s responsibility to address common good?
    • What is common good? Is it constant?
    • Does the idea of common good change depending on the culture, community?
    • Is there an environmental common good?
  • What is the appropriate Citizenship response to the marginalization we witness daily?
    • How do we contribute to marginalization?
    • How do we guard against indifference to marginalization in the world?
How is Canada perceived environmentally in the global community?    Give evidence to support your thinking.

  • What is Canada’s policy on the Canadian environment?
  • What is Canada’s policy on the global environment?
  • What kind of environmental steward is Canada?
  • What is the common good with respect to environmental stewardship?
  • What is the position of the First Nation in your area toward the environment?
  • Review the position of various political parties toward environmental sustainability.
    • Invite a FSI or band representative to your class to explain their environmental stance
    • Invite a political party member, or two, to visit the class explaining their party’s environmental stance.
    • How do the positions reflect worldviews?

Identify and compare similarities and differences between the various viewpoints.

Reflect on the personal consumer choices inquiry.  What kind of environmental statement do student consumer choices make?

What questions are being raised?  What themes are students noticing?

Connect back to the essential questions:  How has student’s thinking changed?  Why?  Why is it important to know this information?

  • What is Canada’s policy on the Canadian environment? How does it compare with Aboriginal positions?
  • What kind of environmental steward is Canada?
  • What kind of environmental steward is the First Nation in your area?
  • What is the common good with respect to environmental stewardship?
Teachers are reminded to ask students to consider current local environmental events and the impact of local consumer choices on those issues in an effort to bring reality into the classroom.
DEVELOPING UNDERSTANDING
This section is the core of the lesson.  It describes the main activity(ies) involved.  In inquiry-based learning, the teacher facilitates the activities that lead to the understandings that student make of the essential questions.  It is critical then, that students be allowed to raise questions and talk about issues that develop as they explore the learning activities. 
Begin to create a bulletin board/display of newspaper articles that highlight local, provincial, national, and global environmental stewardship issues.  What commonalities are students noticing?  What themes are emerging?
What has been Canada’s history with respect to the environmental stewardship?

Using the jigsaw research approach have students find the answers to the following questions. It is in the presentation of student answers that themes and patterns emerge.

  • 1. Represent on a timeline the evolution of Canadian policy on global environmental issues. Include:
    • historical First Nations approaches to environmental stewardship
    • the various leading political parties approach

    What are the similarities? What are the differences?

  • 2. Choose one of the following environmental challenge issues.
    • sharing water resources with the US
    • logging in Canadian forests
    • expansion of nuclear energy
    • development of tar sands
    • Outline the issues, presenting as many sides as available
    • Outline the proposed solutions to the environmental challenge
    • What do the various political stances to address the identified environmental challenge say about what is important to the group?
  • 3. What options exist in your community to protect or steward the environment?
    Consider:

    • walking
    • purchasing locally-produced or seasonal products
    • recycling
    • composting
    • disposing responsibility of garbage
    • using less paper
    • using less plasti;
    • factoring packaging into purchases

    What personal plans could you put into place to steward the environment?

APPLY AND EXTEND KNOWLEDGE

This section includes ideas to “wrap up” the inquiry or apply concepts explored. This section may also include additional reflective questions to promote student connection to the topic.  This forms the “You do” section – extend thinking beyond the classroom discussions and inquiry experiences.  Pose additional reflective questions that have been raised to encourage critical and creative thinking.  
  • Organize a camping trip for the class with the goal of spending time in the outdoors and on the land. What do they think about the environment and their responsibility to it?
  • Visit a local thrift store to look for clothing that might meet your daily needs. Estimate the savings a person could make by subsidizing their regular shopping with second hand clothing.
  • Visit kijiji.ca to find household items, among other things, that one could purchase online. Estimate the savings a person could make by subsidizing their regular shopping with second hand purchases.
  • Research political viewpoints through the Kyoto Protocol, Keystone Pipelines, Mackenzie Pipeline. Share your understandings in a classroom discussion.   What are the similarities and differences?  What themes are emerging?
  • Discuss the exports of Canada and possible future markets.
  • Arrange a class visit with a resource based professional learning about the current state of the markets in Saskatchewan. (Chamber of Commerce)
  • Brainstorm resources that come from the land. Discuss the value of those resources for sustainable living in Canada.

EVIDENCE OF LEARNING

This section suggests ways in which students may demonstrate their understanding.  Ideal demonstrations will be in authentic performance tasks.  Each citizenship study may have its own smaller assessment piece or be compiled to support one larger performance task assessment.  Assessment pieces vary, but should allow students to demonstrate their understanding in a variety of ways.
Connect back to essential questions 

Consumerism

  • How does the impact of the natural environment affect the consumer choices you make? / How is your relationship to the natural environment reflected in your consumer choices?
  • What responsibility do you have to balance personal needs with the global community’s needs?
  • What do you believe is your Citizenship responsibility to the land/environment?
  • How does the natural environment affect the development of society?

Students can indicate how they will demonstrate an understanding of:

  • The social and emotional consequences of living in a mixed market economy.
  • The implications of personal consumer choices and excessive consumerism.
  • Ways in which beliefs and values may be shaped by culture, language and cross-cultural interaction.
  • What is your definition of responsible consumerism? How could you support responsible consumerism?  What personal changes would you have to make to become a more responsible consumer?
  • Assess the advantages and disadvantages of:
    • buying locally
    • buying fair-trade products
    • buying mass-produced products.
  • Include the state of factories in places like Bangladesh, and discuss a Canadian’s responsibility to ensure a safe working place for all. (connection to common good)
  • Have students create a graphic or representation that demonstrates their understandings of the various parts of the mixed market economy and the inter-relationships between consumer, producer, government, and marketing/advertising.

Environmental Stewardship

  • What kind of environmental steward is Canada?
  • What is common good with respect to environmental stewardship?
  • What is the responsibility of the government to address issues of common good?
  • Identify examples of opposing cultural beliefs and values about the treatment of the environment and show how they are demonstrated/exemplified in policies and procedures of those respective cultures.
  • As a citizen, give your opinion on the importance of being aware of the government’s stance on environmental issues.
    • Identify the federal government’s policy on environmental issues.
    • What is the government’s responsibility to use the environment in a sustainable fashion?
  • What is your Canadian citizenship response toward environmental sustainability?  What should Canada’s role be regarding environmental sustainability?

STUDENT CITIZENSHIP JOURNAL OPPORTUNITIES

Students will continue to explore their understanding of their role as a Canadian citizen and reflect on their perspective in an Ongoing Journal.  Art should be included throughout the journal; some to accompany the journal entry and some that are random drawings and sketching. The journal entries are a record of the student’s thinking and chronicle the student’s reflection on their citizenship.

Students are keeping a Citizenship Journal to reflect upon their developing views of citizenship.  This section provides prompts for student journals.  Students are invited to choose one that interests them or propose their own.  Encourage students to include a variety of representation methods including artwork, drawings, and sketches

  • Canadians are part of their environment and cannot be separated. Agree or disagree? Why?
  • What role does empathy play in Global Citizenship?
  • I can defend the choices I make to support my lifestyle because…
  • Respond to any of the essential questions

Part C

Inquiry Resources

Cross Curricular Connections

Language Arts

Themes

  • Personal and Philosophical: Students will reflect upon:
    • self-image and self-esteem; and,
    • self and life, and on their beliefs and values and those of their society.
  • Social, Cultural, and Historical: Students will
    • look outward and examine their relationships with others, their community, and that of the world; and,
    • consider the historical context.
  • Environmental and Technological: Students will:
    • explore the elements of the natural and constructed world and the role of technology and related developments in their society.
  • Communicative: Students will:
    • consider the role of communication in their lives and the ideas and technologies that help people become effective communicators.

Treaty Education

  • TR8: Analyze the impact of treaty on the Métis people.
  • SI8: Assess the impact residential schools have on First Nations communities.
  • HC8: Examine how Provincial, Territorial, and Indigenous governments, who have not negotiated treaty, work to respect each other’s interests.
  • TPP8: Assess whether the terms of treaty have been honoured and to what extent the treaty obligations have been fulfilled.

Health

Understanding, Skills, and Confidences (USC)

  • 1 Analyze and establish effective strategies of support for purposes of helping others increase health-enhancing behaviours.
  • 2 Analyze how personal prejudices/biases, and habits of mind shape assumptions about family identities, structures, roles, and responsibilities.
  • 3 Investigate and analyze the impact of in/formal supports and services (including testing/diagnostic services) available to individuals, families, and communities infected with/affected by non-curable infections/diseases (including HIV and Hepatitis C).
  • 4 Demonstrate an understanding of the impact of violence (including but not limited to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, spiritual abuse, and neglect) on the well-being of and the supports needed for self, family, and community.
  • 5 Assess how body image satisfaction/dissatisfaction and over-reliance on appearance as a source of identity and self-esteem affects the quality of life of self and family.
  • 6 Examine and assess the concept of sustainability from many perspectives, and develop an understanding of its implications for the well-being of self, others, and the environment.
  • 7 Assess the social, cultural, and environmental influences on and supports for sexual health knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and decisions.

Decision Making

  • 9 Analyze the health opportunities and challenges, and establish “support others” personal goal statements, related to family roles and responsibilities, non-curable infections/diseases, violence and abuse, body image, sustainability, and sexual health.

Action Planning (AP)

  • 10 Design, implement, and evaluate three seven-day action plans that establish multiple supports for responsible health action related to family roles and responsibilities, non-curable infections/diseases, violence and abuse, body image, sustainability, and sexual health.

Science

Earth and Space Science: Water Systems on Earth (WS)

  • 1 Analyze the impact of natural and human-induced changes to the characteristics and distribution of water in local, regional, and national ecosystems. [CP,DM]
  • 2 Examine how wind, water, and ice have shaped and continue to shape the Canadian landscape. [DM, SI]
  • 3 Analyze natural factors and human practices that affect productivity and species distribution in marine and fresh water environments. [CP, DM, SI]

Glossary

The following definitions are found at: Vocabulary.com

“Text from Vocabulary.com, Copyright ©1998-2016 Thinkmap, Inc.  All rights reserved.”

Economy

The general sense of economy is careful management of resources such as money and materials, so as not to waste them, but the more familiar reference is to a system of producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services.

The word economy derives from Greek oikonomos “manager of a household,” from oikos “house.” The earliest meaning of the adjective economical and the noun economics was also in connection with the management of a household. The earliest mention of a nation’s economy was in Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan, an important work in the history of political economy.

Industrialism

An economic system built on large industries rather than on agriculture or craftsmanship.

Free enterprise, laissez-faire economy, market economy, private enterprise

An economy that relies chiefly on market forces to allocate goods and resources and to determine prices.

Mixed economy

An economic system that combines private and state enterprises.

Non-market economy

An economy that is not a market economy.

State capitalism

An economic system that is primarily capitalistic but there is some degree of government ownership of the means of production

State socialism

An economic system in which the government owns most means of production but some degree of private capitalism is allowed

Capitalism, capitalist economy

An economic system based on private ownership of capital.

Managed economy

A non-market economy in which government intervention is important in allocating goods and resources and determining prices

Market economy

A market economy, also widely known as a “free market economy,” is one in which goods are bought and sold and prices are determined by the free market, with a minimum of external government control.

A market economy is the basis of the capitalist system. The opposite of a market economy — i.e, a “non-market” or “planned” economy — is one that is heavily regulated or controlled by the government, most notably in socialist or communist countries.

Appendix

OUR PARTNERS

2018 © Concentus Citizenship Education Foundation Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Grade 8 Resources Grade 8